Master Budget Case: ToyWorks Ltd. (A)
ToyWorks Ltd. is a company that manufactures and sells a single product, which they call a Toodle. For planning and control purposes they utilize a monthly master budget, which is usually developed at least six months in advance of the budget year. Their fiscal year end is December 31.
During the summer of 2007, Chris Leigh, the ToyWorks controller, spent considerable time with Pat Frazer, the Manager of Marketing, putting together a sales forecast for the next budget year (January to December, 2008). Unfortunately, their collaboration worked so well they eloped to Las Vegas, were married by an Elvis impersonator, and settled down somewhere in the desert. Prior to their departure they e-mailed letters of resignation and a cryptic sales forecast to the President of ToyWorks.
Their sales forecast consisted of these few lines:
• For the year ended December 31, 2007: 475,000 units at $10.00 each* • For the year ended December 31, 2008: 500,000 units at $10.00 each • For the year ended December 31, 2009: 500,000 units at $10.00 each
*Expected sales for the year ended December 31, 2007 are based on actual sales to date and budgeted sales for the duration of the year.
ToyWorks’s President felt certain that the marriage wouldn’t last, and expected Chris would be back any day. But the end of the year is quickly approaching, and there is still no word from the desert. The President, desperately needing the budget completed, has approached you, a management accounting student, for help in preparing the budget for the coming fiscal year. Your conversations with the president and your investigations of the company’s records have revealed the following information:
1. Peak months for sales correspond with gift-giving holidays. History shows that January, March, May and June are the slowest months with only 1% of sales for each month. Sales pick up over the summer with July, August and September each contributing 2% to the total. Valentines Day in February boosts sales to 5%, and Easter in April accounts for 10%. As Christmas shopping picks up momentum, winter sales start at 15% in October, move to 20% in November and then peak at 40% in December. This pattern of sales is not expected to change in the next two years.
2. From previous experience, management has determined that an ending inventory equal to 25% of the next month’s sales is required to fit the buyer’s demands.
3. Because sales are seasonal, ToyWorks must rent an additional storage facility from September to December to house the additional inventory on hand. The only related cost is a flat $20,000 per month, payable at the beginning of the month.
4. There is only one type of raw material used in the production of toodles. Space-age acrylic (SAA) is a very compact material that is purchased in powder form. Each toodle requires 5 kilograms of SAA, at a cost of $0.45 per kilogram. The supplier of SAA tends to be somewhat erratic so ToyWorks finds it necessary to maintain an inventory balance equal to 40% of the following month’s production needs as a precaution against stock-outs. ToyWorks pays for 20% of a month’s purchases in the month of purchase, 45% in the following month and the remaining 35% two months after the month of purchase. There is no early payment discount.
5. Beginning accounts payable will consist of $208,406.50 arising from the following estimated direct material purchases for November and December of 2007:
SAA purchases in November 2007:
SAA purchases in December 2007
6. ToyWorks’s manufacturing process is highly automated, so their direct labour cost is low. Employees are paid on a per unit basis. Their total pay each month is, therefore, dependent on production volumes and averages $9.00 per hour. This rate already includes the employer’s portion of employee benefits. All payroll costs are paid...
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