27. Where and when did the Kush and Axum civilizations develop, and what were their major industries for trade? The Kush and Axum civilizations developed to the south of Egypt in the upper reaches of the Nile river. Kush developed at about the same time as ancient Egypt, and at one point around 750 B.C.E. actually conquered it. Less than a hundred years later, however, Kush retreated southward back to its capital at Meroe, where it became the center of ironworks and trade. After the Kush decline around 200 C.E., another empire, Axum, rose to greatness to the south. Although Axum never conquered any other civilization, it traded with them frequently, especially ivory and gold. In the fourth century, Axum converted to Christianity, and in the seventh century, many converted to Islam. These conversions illustrate that people of Axum were in constant contact with the empires of the Mediterranean world. And that contact has had a long-standing impact. Ethiopia’s large Christian community in the present times is a direct result of the Axum conversion. 28. Why were Islamic traders interested in trading with Western African Kingdoms? In Ghana (about 800-1000 c.e.) and Mali (about 1200- 1450 c.e.), there were tons and tons of gold. So the Islamic traders kept coming. The constant trade brought more than Islamic goods to Ghana and Mali; it brought Islam. For Ghana the result was devastating. The empire was subjected to Holy War led by an Islamic group intent on converting (or else killing) them. While Ghana was able to defeat the Islamic forces, the empire fell into a decline. By the time Mali came to power, the region had converted to Islam anyway, this time in a more peaceful transition. 29. When and where did the Aztecs live?
The Aztecs, also known as the Mexica, arrived in central Mexico in the Mid-1200s and built their capital at Tenochtitlan. More than anything else, the Aztecs are known for the expansionist policy and professional army, which allowed...
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