6 Concepts of Music

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6 Concepts of Music
Duration
Aspects:
* Beat
* Underlying pulse in music
* Rhythm
* Patterns of long and short sounds and silences found in music * Tempo
* The speed of the beat. Music may be relatively fast or slow and may become faster or slower * Meter
* the grouping of the beats
* Beats can be grouped in any combination including 2,3,4,5,6,7 etc. * Regular and irregular meters
* Metric groupings
* Tempo
* Rhythmic devices such as syncopation, augmentation, and diminution * Methods of notation duration, both traditional and graphic Duration and it’s terms:
* Meter and phrasing
* Beat (steady/strong)
* Time signatures: simple and compound. Common are 24, 34, 44, 68, 98. * Absence of time signature
* Multimeter (changing time signatures)
* Rhythmic phrase is regular or irregular
* Rhythmic phrase is balanced or imbalanced.
* Rhythm
* Metrical (with regular pulse)
* Syncopation
* Rubato
* Rhythmic ostinati
* Repetitive patterns
* Polyrhythms
* Cross rhythms
* Hemiola (metrical pattern in which two bars in simple triple are articulated as if they were three bars in simple duple) * Motivic development
* Tempo
* How fast or slow?
* Changing or constant?
* Do changes accentuate a musical climax?
Pitch:
Aspects:
* High/low:
* Pitches can be comparatively high or low
* Direction of pitch movement:
* Up, down, same level
* Melody
* A horizontal succession of pitches
* Harmony
* two or more pitches sounding together
* indefinite pitch
* untuned sounds, eg. The speaking voice
* Definite pitch
* Tuned sounds eg. The singing voice
* Definite and indefinite pitch
* Pitch direction and contour
* Pitch patterns
* Pitch range and register
* Harmony
* Methods of notation pitch, both traditional and graphic * Various scales, modes and other ways of organizing pitch. Pitch Words and Phrases:
Melody
The style of a piece of music will often indicate melodic and harmonic characteristics which may appear in a piece of music. * Melodic contour
* Scalic, stepwise melodies
* Chordal melodies
* Repetition of melody
* Sequence
* Melodic motifs, riffs, ostinati (and their development). * Imitation
* Counter melody
* Melodic ornamentation
* Vocal melisma
* Phrasing (length, even symmetrical, asymmetrical, anticipated cadence points, question and answer etc) * Strophic or through-composed songs
* Balance uses of unity and variety
Tonality (melody)
* Diatonic major/minor
* Modal
* Pentatonic
* Whole tone
* Modal
* Chromatic
* Blues
* Atonal
Tonality (harmony)
* Major/minor chords
* Chordal patterns, e.g. 12 bar blues
* Added note chords as used in jazz (7ths, 9ths, 11ths etc). * Atonality/polytonality
* Parallelism (organum/impressionism)
* Chromatic harmonies
* Modulations
* Dissonance
Dynamics and Expressive Techniques:
Aspects:
* A range of dynamics, including gradations
* Articulations
* Tempo and graduations of tempo
* Stylistic indications
Dynamics:
* Volume levels and changes such as crescendo and decrescendo * Common terminology (may be Italian, German, French or English) * Terraced dynamics
* Accents
Expressive Techniques:
* Articulations patterns such as staccato, legato, tenuto * Various accents e.g. sfz
* Instrumental techniques such as glissando, sul ponticello, spiccato, con sordino (mute), distortion, guitar pedal effects etc. * Stylistic indications such as dolce, cantabile, con forza, tranquillo, rubato, various tempo changes Tone Colour:

Aspects:
* Sound source material e.g. wood, metal, string, skin, electronic aid, vocal. * Method of sound producing e.g. blowing, hitting,...
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