Summary: beautiful filament-systems are often shown by the astonishing development of the modern astronomy. Most of these filaments have an exact circular cross section. Filaments have the same interesting characteristics from a diameter of 0.01 mm to that of many 1000 of light-years. Filaments are incorrectly seen to be of plasma, however, particles move in only one direction in them, often against gravity. In this non-thermal (fifth-) state of matter, particles have up to 1016 -times higher energy than those in the hottest stellar plasma. The corona-problem and hundreds of other problems of astrophysics are solved at once. Only six states of matter are possible, all are briefly described. Key words: Acceleration of particles, Bose-Einstein condensate, corona, corona problem, cosmic rays, fifth state of matter, filament, flux tube, forbidden lines, heat-motion, hypernova, jet, lightning, magnetic tube, non-thermal-phenomena, pinch-effect, plasma, solar dynamo, state of matter, supernova, temperature-scale. CONTENT
* WHEN THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE IS TOO LOW
* PHYSICS OF THE FILAMENTS: THE FIFTH STATE OF MATTER
* THE SOLAR CORONA IS IN THE FIFTH STATE OF MATTER (and not hot!) * RECENT FANTASTIC ASTRONOMY FINDS MANY FILAMENTS
* THE SOLUTION OF ALL CORONA PROBLEMS
* THE PARTICLES OF THE HIGHEST ENERGY : THE COSMIC RAYS
Ice is transformed to water at 0°C when the energy of its molecules (particles) increases. Water is similarly transformed to vapor at 100°C (Fig.1). Much stronger zigzag motion of the particles separates and ionizes hydrogen and oxygen i.e. plasma comes into existence (above 13 000 K). Do all bodies fit one of these four states of matter? The answer is: no, e.g. the solar corona does not!
Fig. 1 The temperature scale. It starts at 0K. Is it infinite long or does it have a highest end? The solar corona-problem is about 60 years old. The temperature of the corona of 2MK is much...