501 CHALLENGING LOGIC AND REASONING PROBLEMS
Copyright © 2005 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: 501 challenging logic & reasoning problems. p. cm.—(LearningExpress skill builders practice) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1-57685-534-1 1. Logic—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Reasoning—Problems, exercises, etc. 3. Critical thinking—Problems, exercises, etc. I. LearningExpress (Organization) II. Title: 501 challenging logic and reasoning problems. III. Series. BC108.A15 2006 160'.76—dc22 2005057953 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Second Edition ISBN 1-57685-534-1 For information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
INTRODUCTION QUESTIONS ANSWERS
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his book—which can be used alone, with other logic and reasoning texts of your choice, or in combination with LearningExpress’s Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day—will give you practice dealing with the types of multiple-choice questions that appear on standardized tests assessing logic, reasoning, judgment, and critical thinking. It is designed to be used by individuals working on their own and by teachers or tutors helping students learn, review, or practice basic logic and reasoning skills. Practice on 501 logic and reasoning questions will go a long way in alleviating test anxiety, too! Maybe you’re one of the millions of people who, as students in elementary or high school, never understood the necessity of having to read opinion essays and draw conclusions from the writer’s argument. Or maybe you never understood why you had to work through all those verbal analogies or number series questions. Maybe you were one of those people who could never see a “plan of attack” when working through logic games or critical thinking puzzles. Or perhaps you could never see a connection between everyday life and analyzing evidence from a series of tedious reading passages. If you ﬁt into one of these groups, this book is for you. First, know you are not alone. It is true that some people relate more easily than do others to number series questions, verbal analogies, logic games, and reading passages that present an argument. And that’s okay; we all have unique talents. Still, it’s a fact that for most jobs today, critical thinking skills—including analytical and logical reasoning—are essential. The good news is that these skills can be developed with practice. Learn by doing. It’s an old lesson, tried and true. And it’s the tool this book is designed to give you. The 501 logic and reasoning questions that follow will provide you with lots of practice. As you work through each set of questions, you’ll be gaining a solid understanding of basic analytical and logical reasoning skills—all without memorizing! The purpose of this book is to help you improve your critical thinking through encouragement, no frustration.
– INTRODUCTION –
An Over view
501 Challenging Logic and Reasoning Problems is divided into 37 sets of questions: Sets 1–4: Number Series Sets 5–6: Letter and Symbol Series Sets 7–8: Verbal Classiﬁcation Sets 9–11: Essential Part Sets 12–17: Analogies Sets 18–19: Artiﬁcial Language Set 20: Matching Deﬁnitions Set 21: Making Judgments Set 22: Verbal Reasoning Sets 23–27: Logic Problems Sets 28–31: Logic Games Sets 32–37: Analyzing Arguments Each set contains between 5–20 questions, depending on their length and difﬁculty. The book is speciﬁcally organized to help you build conﬁdence as you further develop your logic and reasoning skills. 501 Challenging Logic and Reasoning Problems begins with basic number and...