The Final Exam (2) Hours
Total No. of rows must less than 180 (1800 words) for both tow questions. Question No. 1
How are the management four functions interrelated?
The total work of management is often divided in four broad functions. These are: 1. Planning and/or decision making
2. Organizing, including staffing
Although all these function are very distinct but they are in the same time is closely related or interrelated. These function are generally carried out in these sequence of steps presented above. At the same time they are iterative steps. That is after a manager has completed one step and moved to another, he or she may revisit an earlier step in response to the developments occurring in subsequent steps. Also management is an ongoing process and therefore these steps are performed in a repetitive cycle in a spiral pattern. Fig1 Planning
The core link between those four functions is the "Target" or "Goal" Management: attainment of the organizational goals in effective and efficient manner, through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of organization resource. As Cycle all that function is interrelated and interdependent to each other, if one of them is being done incorrectly it would affect the whole process. To show how much all these function is interrelated I have to discuss 6 different type of relation and one frame between all four function 1- Planning – Organizing (Structure follows Strategy)
2- Organizing – Leading
3- Leading – Controlling
4- Controlling – Planning
5- Planning – Leading
6- Organizing – Controlling
7- Endless circle or "Vicious Circle"
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1- Planning – Organizing (Structure follows strategy)
Organizing is the process of arranging people and other resources to work together to accomplish a goal. Planning is the process of setting objectives and determining how to accomplish them. As we see the goal is the holy link that link these tow important function to each other, structure is not simply an organization chart. Structure is all the people, positions, procedures, processes, culture, technology and related elements that comprise the organization. This structure must be totally integrated with strategy for the organization to achieve its mission and goals.
If an organization changes its strategy, it must change its structure to support the new strategy. When it doesn't the structure acts like a bungee cord and pulls the organization back to its old strategy. Strategy follows structure. What the organization does defines the strategy. Changing strategy means changing what everyone in the organization does.
Also when an organization changes its structure and not its strategy, the strategy will change to fit the new structure. Strategy follows structure. In reality, an organization's structure is a powerful force. You can't direct it to do something for any length of time unless the structure is capable of supporting that strategy.
Structure and strategy are married to each other. When a company makes major changes, it must carefully think out every aspect of the structure required to support the strategy. That is the only way to implement lasting improvements.
It takes the right structure for a strategy to succeed. If you want to implement new strategy depending on new opportunities, or new technological trend arises in the external environment you almost have to change the structure to cope with the new strategy, which is meaning that ll the time you have to deal with the structure as the strategy in contingent way of thinking.
So when you embark to put a plan or strategy you have to make an internal environment analysis to know what are your weakness and strength points of your structure, according...
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