An Essay on 3G Wireless Communication Technology
The advent of Wireless Communication
Communication has been one of the most fundamental aspects of human development. It took the eccentric genius of Nikola Tesla to come up with the design of the first radio transmitter in 1891. The first transatlantic radio communication in 1901 was a sign of further things to come. Communication technologies that have been developed over the last century have largely shaped human interaction and have played a crucial role in sustaining human relationship be it social or otherwise. When Dr. Martin Copper of Motorola came up with its first wireless cellphone in 1978, it was clear that the dynamics of wireless communication were about to change. With the advent of wireless technology, a transition from point-to-point communication toward person- to-person communication (i.e.; independent of position) had begun. The first cellular network in the world was built in 1977 in Chicago and turned on in 1978. By the end of 1978 it had over 1300 customers. In 1979 a cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT. The first generation cellular networks, which were based on analog technology with FM modulation, had weak security and could be intercepted using scanners. Another first generation cellular telephone system (1G) is the Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS). Second generation (2G) wireless systems employs digital modulation and advanced call-processing capabilities and has enhanced security. In view of the processing complexity required for these digital systems, two offered advantages are the possibility of using spectrally efficient radio transmission schemes such as Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), in comparison to the analog Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) schemes previously employed and the provision for implementation of a wide variety of integrated speech and data services such as paging and low data rate network access. Examples of 2G wireless systems include the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), TDMA IS-54/IS-136 and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC). In anticipation of the growing consumer demands, the next generation of wireless systems endeavours to provide person-to-person communication of the circuit and packet multimedia data. Third Generation (3G) wireless systems have evolved from mature 2G networks with the aim of providing universal access and global roaming. More important these systems are expected to support multi-dimensional (multi-information media, multi transmission media, and multi-layered networks) high-speed wireless communication- an important milestone toward achieving the grand vision of ubiquitous personal communications. Introduction of wide band packet-data services for wireless Internet up to 2Mbps will be the main attribute of 3G system. Mobile phones are rapidly becoming the preferred means of personal communication, creating the world's largest consumer electronics industry. The rapid and efficient deployment of new wireless data and Internet services has emerged as a critical priority for communications equipment manufacturers. Network components that enable wireless data services are fundamental to the next-generation network infrastructure. Wireless data services are expected to see the same explosive growth in demand that Internet services and wireless voice services have seen in recent years. The number of mobile subscribers in India stands at close to 900 million and connections to the tune of 7 million continue to be added every month. In anticipation of the growing consumer demands, the next generation of wireless systems endeavours to provide person-to-person communication of the circuit and packet...
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