360 degree feedback, also known as multi-source feedback, was defined by Ward (1997) as "the systematic collection and feedback of performance data on an individual or group derived from a number of the stakeholders on their performance". Different authors view, who propose definitions of the 360 degree feedback process. “Feedback from multiple sources or ‘360 degree feedback’ is a performance appraisal approach that relies on the input of an employee’s superiors, colleagues, subordinates, sometimes customers, suppliers and/or spouses” (Yukl and Lepsinger, 1995). The 360 degree evaluation can help one person be rated from different sides, different people which can give the wider prospective of the employee’s competencies (Shrestha, 2007). It is a process in which someone's performance is assessed and feedback is given by a number of people, who may include their manager, subordinates, colleagues and customers. Assessments take the form of rating against various performance dimensions. 360 degree feedback is a tool that gives managers a clear picture of their performance at workplace. Different opinions are gathered from the manager, their staff and their pair being assessed. All views are grouped together to form the clear picture. To accomplish this opinions are express by completion of a questionnaire incorporating different aspects of expected performance factors. Research conducted by Handy, Devine and Heath (1996) found that typically, 360 degree feedback forms part of a self-development or management development program. 2. 360 Degree feedback and appraisal
An important issue to be addressed in development a 360 degree feedback system is whether it should be used purely for development purpose(i.e. identifying learning and development) or whether it should be also or mainly used as part of the appraisal process(contributing to overall ratings and decision on promotion, succession planning, pay or even retention).Research by Warr and Ainsworth (1999) established that 100 percent of the organizations they studied used 360 degree feedback for development, 50 percent used it as part of performance appraisal and only 7 percent used it for determining pay. 3. Benefits of 360 degree feedback
According to Bailey and Fletcher (2002) its benefits have been largely untested but rely on a number of assumptions- that individuals learn how effective task performance can be described, gain insight into how it is demonstrated and build the accuracy of self-perception and subsequent corrective behaviors. Based on The Feedback Project (2001) benefits of 360 feedbacks are: * Increased employee self-awareness.
* Enhanced understanding of behaviors needed to increase individual and organizational performance. * The creation of development activities that is more specific to the employee. * Increased involvement of employees at all levels in the hierarchy. * Increased devolution of self-development and learning to employees.
4. Advantage of 360 degree feedback
According to Armstrong (2009), 360 degree feedback advantages are: * Balanced view of individual performance
Feedback from number of people saying the same thing then it cannot be ignored. The 360 approach provides a basis for identifying and discussing different expectations of a person’s opinion about the performance. * More likely to cause behavior change
The evidence from different assessors saying how they are doing, will also identify strengths that can be built on as a means of improving performance even further. * Expose unique information not captured by other methods 360 degree feedback methods overcome blockages include a reluctance of the team to give negative feedback to a team leader, and a lack of positive feedback from the manager to team members. * Reliable feedback source for top-level managers
This is a best way for top-level manager to collect a...