1) The Peace of Augsburg of 1555 had brought a temporary truce in the religious conflicts in the German states. This settlement had recognized only Lutherans and Roman Catholics, but Calvinism had made significant gains in a number of states. The Calvinists began to demand recognition of their rights. The Thirty Years' War began, however, as a direct result of a conflict in the Hapsburg-ruled Kingdom of Bohemia. 2) The Thirty Years' War had begun primarily as a German conflict over religious issues. The conflict eventually became a wider European war, fought mainly over political issues, as Catholic France and Protestant Sweden joined forces against the Catholic Hapsburgs. SLLIIIDDEEEE CHHANNNGGEEEE
The Bohemian Period (1618-1625)
1) Ferdinand, who was the King of Bohemia, became Holy Roman emperor, as Ferdinand II (r. 1619-1637). He was a massive supporter of the Catholic cause. This didn’t sit well with the Bohemian Calvinists, who feared the loss of their religious rights. In May of 1618, the Calvinist revolt began when the rebels threw two Catholic members of the Bohemian royal council from a window into a pile of horse poop. 2) Troops of the Holy Roman Empire and Bavari commanded by Baron Tilly (1559-1632), invaded Bohemia. Tilly won a decisive victory at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague. 3) The Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years' War ended with a Hapsburg and Catholic victory. The Danish Period (1625-1629)
1) The Danish period of the conflict began when King Christian IV, who was a prince of the Holy Roman Empire & the Lutheran ruler of Denmark, supported the Protestants in against Ferdinand II. 2) Ferdinand relied on the assistance of Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634), who raised an independent army of 50,000. The combined forces of Wallenstein and Tilly defeated King Christian IV in 1626 3) When Ferdinand took over Prague, rebels deposed of him and elected a new king, Frederick V...