April 16, 2013
The Thirty Years’ War in 1932
Like Christian IV before him, Gustavus Adolphus had come to aid the German Lutherans, to anticipate Catholic aggression against his homeland, and to obtain economic influence in the surrounding German states. He was also very concerned about the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire. Then, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back, regaining much of the lost Protestant territory. Swedish forces entered the Holy Roman Empire via the Duchy of Pomerania, which served as the Swedish bridgehead since the Treaty of Stettin (1630). At the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631), Gustavus Adolphus's forces defeated the Catholic League led by Tilly, the great imperial leader. A year later they met again in another Protestant victory, this time the great leader Tilly was killed. Vast control had now switched from the league to the union, led by Sweden. Sweden began investing in armies and these armies became cheaper to produce. This was possible due to subsidies from France, and the recruitment of prisoners (most of them taken at the Battle of Breitenfeld). With Tilly dead, Ferdinand II then returned to the aid of Wallenstein with his large army. Wallenstein marched up to the south, threatening Gustavus Adolphus's supply chain. Gustavus Adolphus knew that Wallenstein was waiting for the attack and was prepared, but found no other option so Wallenstein and Gustavus Adolphus clashed in the Battle of Lützen in 1632, where the Swedes prevailed, however, Gustavus Adolphus was killed. So as you can see the Catholic side has not been doing well while the Protestants are gaining strength and momentum.