2114 Final Exam Review Study Guide Questions

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BIO2114 Final Exam Review

1. List the endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete.

2. What are the two major types of hormone based on structure?

3. What are the factors that can affect the response of target cells to a hormone?

4. Review the examples of hypersecretion and hyposecretion of some hormones and the disease states that result

5. Know the function or action of every hormone.

6. Know what structures are targeted by each hormone.

7. Know the major components of whole blood and the percentages of each.

8. How much blood is there in an average adult?

9. List the types of Leukocyte.

10. What is "anemia", and what are examples of different types?

11. What are the structural features of an erythrocyte?

12. What part of the hemoglobin molecule actually binds oxygen, and how many oxygen molecules can be carried in a single erythrocyte?

13. What are immature erythrocytes known as?

14. Know the difference between the terms thrombus and embolus.

15. How much blood does the heart pump per day?

16. What is the double-membrane sac surrounding the heart?

17. Name the four heart valves and know where they are located in the heart

18. Know the route of blood flow through the heart, including systemic and pulmonary circuits.

19. Name the tissue layers that make up the wall of the heart.

20. List the structures that comprise the conduction system of the heart, in order.

21. List the types of shock and the causes of each?

22. What are the two major factors affecting blood pressure?

23. How do sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve impulses affect heart rate, and what neurotransmitters are involved?

24. What are the major factors affecting peripheral resistance?

25. Know the major vessels that carry blood into and out of the heart.

26. Know the major differences between arteries and veins in terms of structure and blood flow.

27. Where are the cardiac and vasomotor centers located in the brain?

28. What are the main functions of the lymphatic system?

29. What is the function of lymph nodes?

30. List the names and locations of the three types of tonsil.

31. Name the two largest lymphatic vessels and the blood vessels into which they empty.

32. List the names and locations of the major clusters of lymph nodes in the body.

33. Name the components of the non-specific immune system

34. What are the major cell types involved in the specific immune system?

35. Which of the following statements best defines Cell-mediated immunity?

36. How are B cells activated?

37. How are T cells activated?

38. What are MHC proteins?

39. Name the cell types involved in non-specific immunity, and their specific roles

40. Name the types of T cells that are formed when a T cell is activated, and their functions.

41. Name the types of B cells that are formed when a B cell is activated, and their functions.

42. Know the difference between Active and Passive types of acquired immunity, including natural and artificial types.

43. What are the components of the upper respiratory tract?

44. What are the components of the lower respiratory tract?

45. What structures make up the nasal septum?

46. Name the passageways that make up the respiratory tract, from the trachea to the alveoli.

47. Where does gas exchange occur in the lungs?

48. In which bones would you find the nasal sinuses?

49. What are the ways in which oxygen is transported in the blood? 

50. How is MOST of the oxygen transported?

51. How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?

52. How do levels of carbon dioxide affect the pH of blood?

53. What stimulates the chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid arteries? 

54. Which has the greatest influence? (pertaining to the above...
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