2002 APUSH DBQ
During 1825-1861, or the Antebellum Era, there were many different social, religious, institutional and educational reform movements. Though, the leaders behind these goals were aspiring for a surreal goal, a utopian society, what they formed was a vastly improved nation. Some of the reform movements were the temperance movement, the 2nd great awakening, abolitionist movement, and women's rights movement. These reform movements expanded the ideals of democracy.
Socrates philosophized that in order for a democratic system to operate correctly free of corruption and for the people, the voters must be educated. Andrew Jackson also used this argument against the southern states during the nullification crisis, and the states said that they have no representation. Jackson stated that the people vote for their representatives, therefore, they were represented. Horace Mann was an educational reformer from Massachusetts. He also believed that a good public education system was a way to cut crime and create informed citizens. One of his beliefs was that schools should allow students of different backgrounds to attend their school. This theory encompasses the belief that all men are created equal. He also believed that education should be non-sectarian, which is inferred to by Thomas Jefferson in the 1st amendment. The Brook Farm Association was a utopian society experiment in 1841. The leaders of the experimental community sought to create a perfect society, in doing this they created a constitution. Stated within this constitution, is that an education would be provided, as said, "In order to more effectually promote the great purpose of human culture...the benefits of the highest physical, intellectual and moral education". The constitution also goes on to say that providing the education will help to create a more efficient industry and help make people be self-sufficient.