AP US History Document Based Question
Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying documents. You will have 60 minutes to read and analyze the documents and answer the question. This question tests your ability to work with historical documents.
To what extent was the decision of the Jackson administration to remove the Cherokee Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River in the 1830's was more a reformulation of the national policy that had been in effect since the 1790's than a change in that policy?
Source: Henry Knox, secretary of war, letter to President George Washington (June 15, 1789).
"In examining the question how the disturbances on the frontiers are to be quieted, two modes present themselves, by which the object might perhaps be effected; the first of which is by raising an army, and (destroying the resisting] tribes entirely, or 2ndly by forming treaties of peace with them, in which their rights and limits should be explicitly defined, and the treaties observed on the part of the United States with the most rigid justice, by punishing the whites, who should violate the same. In considering the first mode, an inquiry would arise, whether, under the existing circumstances of affairs, the United States have a clear right, consistently with the principles of justice and the laws of nature, to proceed to the destruction or expulsion of the savages.... The Indians being the prior occupants, possess the right of the soil. It cannot be taken from them unless by their free consent, or by the right of conquest in case of a. just war. To dispossess them on any other principle, would be a gross violation of the fundamental laws of nature, and of that distributive justice which is the glory of a nation. But if it should be decided, on an abstract view of the situation, to remove by force the ... Indians from the territory they occupy, the finances of the United States would not at present admit of the operation."
Source: President Thomas Jefferson, letter to Andrew Jackson, major general of the Tennessee militia (1803)
"The Indian Tribes ... have for a considerable time been growing more and more uneasy at the constant diminution of the territory they occupy, although effected by their own voluntary sales, and the policy has long been gaining strength with them of refusing absolutely all further sale on any conditions.... In order peaceably to counteract this policy of theirs and to provide an extension of territory which the rapid increase of our numbers will call for [they should be led to an agricultural way of life, thus lessening their need for land]. In leading them thus to ... civilization ... I trust and believe we are acting for their greatest good."
Source: General Andrew Jackson to George Graham, secretary of war (July 8,1817)
"I believe every native of the nation left to themselves, would freely make this election [to remove]. But they appear to be overawed by the council of some white men and half breeds, who have been and are fattening upon the annuities, the labours, and folly of the native Indian, and who believe, that their income would be destroyed by the removal of the Indians." Document E
Source: The Intercourse Act (March 30, 1802)
"Be it ... enacted, that if any such citizen -or other person, shall go into any country which is allotted, or secured by treaty ... to any of the Indian tribes south of the river Ohio, without a passport [that person] shall forfeit a sum not exceeding fifty dollars, or be imprisoned not exceeding three months."
Source: General Andrew Jackson, treaty negotiator, to President James Monroe (March 4, 1817)
"I have long viewed treaties with the Indians an absurdity not to be reconciled to the principles of our Government. The Indians are the subjects of the United States, inhabiting its territory and acknowledging its...