The 1930’s, known as the Great Depression Era, were a time of economic struggles for the American People. The United States Government was faced with multiple issues, having an economic depression at home, and trying to avoid getting involved with foreign affairs going on in Europe. Although it was a time of difficulty, a lot of good came out of this era. Inventions would make life easier, and there was a rise in entertainment as the movie industry grew, and great novels depicted the problems faced during the depression. The 1930’s were an important decade in American History because it would change the way that people lived, and how we still live today. Government and Politics
In the thirties, the United States Government spent a majority of its time trying to get the country out of the economic depression that it was in.
During this decade, there were two presidents; Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Herbert Hoover’s presidency was plagued by the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, which lasted through the thirties. Hoover never fully recovered his credibility with the American people after he was unable to cope with the economic crisis. The depression, however, obscured the accomplishments of Hoover, which included the construction of the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River and the San Francisco Bay Bridge. In the presidential election of 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Herbert Hoover, who was running for a second term in office. Roosevelt was elected president in a time of a national issue, and responded by putting many different policies in place to help make American’s lives easier and to jumpstart the economy. He would also try to speak directly to American people through fireside chats, which were broadcasted nationally over the radio. During these chats, he would be optimistic yet realistic, unlike Herbert Hoover, who many people saw as unrealistic. After his inauguration in March 1933, the newly elected president launched a period of intense activity known as the Hundred Days, which lasted from Mach 9th to June 16th, 1933. During this period, Roosevelt worked to get several programs from his proposed New Deal legislation. He proposed and received more than 15 major pieces of the New Deal, which is more than any other president had done in such a short amount of time. Roosevelt was able to make the process of healing the economy easier with the new policies that he proposed. President Roosevelt was the only president to run for more than two terms, and he was president from 1933 to 1945, dying in his fourth term. Many of the laws passed during this era were part of Roosevelt’s proposed New Deal legislation. The Emergency Banking Relief Act authorized the Treasury Department to inspect banks, and those that passed could reopen. The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which provided federal insurance for individual bank accounts of up to $5,000 and reassured customers that their money was safe. There were many other policies that were part of the new legislation, most of which dealt with employment projects, business assistance and reform, farm relief, housing, labor relations, and retirement. One of the most important achievements of the New Deal was creating the Social Security System, which was passed in 1935. This system had three major parts; old age insurance for retirees aged 65 or older, and unemployment compensation, and aid to families with depended children and the disabled. There were two new amendments passed in the thirties, the 20th and 21st amendments, which were both ratified in 1933. The 20th amendment, also known as the “Lame Duck” amendment, changed the date that the president and the vice president took office, to shorten the period of time between being elected and their inauguration. The 21st amendment would repeal the 18th, bringing prohibition in the United States to the end. Although Roosevelt...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document