18th Century

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caste system vs the three estates

society divisions of france in 18th century

the society of estates was a part of the feudal system that dated back to the middle ages

The First Estate was the Catholic clergy.

The Second Estate was the Nobility

The Third Estate was everyone else.However it was again divided into 3 groups

Big buisnessmen ,merchants ,court officials,lawyers ,etc

peasants and artisans

servants,landless labourers


The first and second estate enjoyed many special privileges.one of them was the payment of tax which was especially more during the french revolutuion •
They did not have to pay tax,only the third estate had to pay tax to the state(a direct one called taille and a number of indirect ones which were levied on articles of everyday usage)

The second estate could extract its share of tax ie feudal dues from the third estate

The first estate could extract its share of tax ie taxes called tithes from the third estate

Therefore the burdening of financial activities of the state through taxes was borne by the third estate alone as it had to pay taxes to the state,first estate and second estate

Society divisions of india in 18th century

1. In descending order, the four major varnas (traditional castes) are

: 1) the Brahmins (priests and scholars), 2) the Kshatryas (landowners, rulers and warriors), 3) Vaisyas (commoners and merchants) and 4) Shudras (craftsmen, servants and laborers)

The Dalits (formally known as Untouchables) have traditionally been regarded as having such a low status they were not even considered being members of the caste system

Within the four main castes there were numerous subdivisions. Some have only a few hundred members others have several million.


The first three...
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