17th Century Crisis

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The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century

 -

The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century
,  ,   

HUGH TREVOR-ROPER

LIBERTY FUND

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This book is published by Liberty Fund, Inc., a foundation established to encourage study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals.

The cuneiform inscription that serves as our logo and as the design motif for our endpapers is the earliest-known written appearance of the word ‘‘freedom’’ (amagi), or ‘‘liberty.’’ It is taken from a clay document written about 2300 .. in the Sumerian city-state of Lagash.

© 1967 by Liberty Fund, Inc. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Frontispiece © 1999 by Ellen Warner 05 04 03 02 01 05 04 03 02 01 C P 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Trevor-Roper, H. R. (Hugh Redwald), 1914– The crisis of the seventeenth century / H.R. Trevor-Roper. p. cm. Originally published: New York: Harper & Row, 1967. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-86597-274-5 (alk. paper)—ISBN 0-86597-278-8 (pbk.: alk. paper) 1. Europe—History—17th century. I. Title: Crisis of the 17th century. II. Title. D246.T75 2001 940.2'52—dc21 00-025945

Liberty Fund, Inc. 8335 Allison Pointe Trail, Suite 300 Indianapolis, Indiana 46250-1684

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   vii  ix 1 Religion, the Reformation, and Social Change 1 The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century 43 The European Witch-craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries 83 The Religious Origins of the Enlightenment 179 Three Foreigners: The Philosophers of the Puritan Revolution 219 The Fast Sermons of the Long Parliament 273 Oliver Cromwell and His Parliaments 317 Scotland and the Puritan Revolution 359 The Union of Britain in the Seventeenth Century 407

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Louis de Geer at the age of sixty-two. From the portrait by David Beck in the collection of the de Geer family, Stockholm, Sweden Page 31 (Svenska Porträttarkivet, Stockholm) The Apocalypse of the seventeenth century. Frontispiece from Theopolis, or the City of God (1672), by Henry Danvers Page 32 (Regent’s Park College, Oxford) ‘‘A Witches’ Sabbat.’’ Engraving by Jan Ziarnko, taken from Pierre de l’Ancre’s Tableau de l’inconstance des mauvais anges et démons (Paris, 1613) Page 106 (Trustees of the British Museum) Jean Bodin. Contemporary wood engraving, artist unknown, reproduced in the 1568 edition of La Response de Maistre Jean Bodin . . . au paradoxe de Monsieur de Malestroit. In the collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale Page 136 (Photographie Giraudon) Philippe Duplessis-Mornay, founder of the Protestant Academy at Saumur. Drawing attributed to Dubreuil. In the collection of the Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme français Page 195 (Photographie Agraci) J. A. Comenius. Engraving by George Glover, 1642 Page 224 National Portrait Gallery, London) (Trustees of the

The Pansophic Enlightenment. Emblem by Crispin de Pass to Comenius’ Opera Didactica Omnia (Amsterdam, 1657) Page 225 ( Trustees of the British Museum) Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill, 1st Earl of Orrery. Artist unknown Page 369 ( From a painting in the possession of Lord Cork and Orrery) The Union of Britain, 1641. Title-page of The Great Happinesse of England and Scotland, by being re-united into one great Brittain Page 398 ( Trustees of the British Museum)

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These essays were written and first published on different occasions between 1956 and 1967. Most of them began as lectures or were written in tributary volumes. They were first published together, as a book bearing the title of the first essay, Religion, the Reformation and Social Change. The book was published by Messrs. Macmillan in London in 1967. An American edition was published in 1968 by Messrs. Harper and Row, under the present title, The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century. The...
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