16pf Personality

Topics: Psychology, Personality psychology, Raymond Cattell Pages: 10 (2345 words) Published: June 4, 2012

Sixteen Personality Factor

Evelyn Conner
Walden University
Course: 6315-2
Instructor: Dr. Craig Boswell
May 16, 2012



The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire is comprehensive measure of normal-range personality equipped to be effective in a multiplicity of backgrounds where in depth assessment of the whole person is needed. The 16PF traits are results of years of factor-analysis research focused on discovering basic structural elements of personality (Cattell, R. B., 1957, 1973). In addition, to discovering the sixteen normal-range personality traits for which the instrument is named, the researchers identified the five broad dimensions---variant of the “Big Five” factors (Cattell, R.B., 1957, 1970). From the beginning, Cattell proposed a multi-level hierarchical structure of personality: the second-order global measures describe personality at a broader, conceptual level, while the more precise primary factors reveal the fine details and nuances that make each person unique, and more powerful in predicting actual behavior.  

Psychologists know that the best way to understand a subject is to find a practical and personally relevant application for it. So, as a way of teaching students about some of the most prevalent personality theories in a truly interactive way is to incorporate the 16PF instrument in our Psychology course. Bringing the subject alive for students, the use of the 16PF questionnaire can also be a highly relevant career planning tool, giving personality insights which can help students decide where their studies would lead them after college. Due to the 16PF scientific origin, the questionnaire has a long history of research and is a well-established theory of individual differences. The questionnaire’s extensive body of research stretches back over half a century, providing evidence of its utility in clinical, counseling, industrial- organizational, educational, and research settings (Cattell, R. B. er al, 1970 H.E.P. Cattell and Schuerger, 2003; Conn and Reike, 1994; Krug and Johns, 1990; Russell and Karol, 2002). A conservative estimate of 16PF research since 1974 includes more than 2,000 publications (Hofer, and Eber, 2002). Most studies have found the 16PF to be among the top five most commonly used normal-range instruments in both research and practice (Butcher and Rouse 1996; Piotrowski and Zalewski, 1993; Watkins et al., 1995). The measure is also used internationally, and since its inception has been adapted into 35 languages worldwide.  


History and Description
           The first edition of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) was published in 1949 with other editions following in 1956, 1962, 1967-69 with the most recent being the fifth edition, having 38 new items (McClellan, 2004). The 16PF is a 185 item multi-dimensional forced choice personality inventory (Carducci, 2009).            The 16PF may be administered to person or groups ages 16 or older. The test is hand or computer scored being completed with paper and pencil or computer version. The test consists of 185 items with a three choice format including a question mark (?) with 15 reasoning ability items at the end of the test that have different choices. The average time to complete the test is 35 to 40 minutes when using pencil and paper and 25 to 35 minutes when the test is taken on the computer. The same score sheet is used despite of whether the protocol is to be computer or hand scored. The examiner...
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