14 Principles of Management

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Focus on management history
Fayol's 14 principles of management then and now:
a framework for managing today's organizations
effectively
Carl A. Rodrigues
Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, New Jersey, USA

Industrial manufacturing began to play an
increasingly important role in the US
economy more than 100 years ago. Since
then, many writers have developed
propositions about what managers of
Abstract
Early last century, for industrially- organizations must do to be able to perform developing economies, Fayol
their managerial duties more effectively. One
offered 14 principles of
of the most well-known and quoted early
management aimed to help
managers ascertain what to do to writers is the late French industrialist Fayol manage more effectively.
(1949). One of his key contributions was the
Currently, service-based and high- 14 principles of management. These tech industries are becoming
principles provided and continue to provide a
dominant in some economies,
general management perspective for
such as the United States. Many
practicing managers and an instructional
organizations in these industries
interpret the principles quite
tool for academicians teaching in the field of
differently from the way they were
management. But, since Fayol's era, many of
interpreted in Fayol's time. The
the US's manufacturing industries have been
differences and the cultural
transferred to sites in other countries, and
challenges managers face in
implementing this new framework the vast majority of America's workforce is are presented.
now employed in a service capacity.
Thus, the US has entered into what many
writers refer to as ``the postindustrial
society.'' Basically, this society is
characterized by rapid growth of its service
sector, by enormous growth in the knowledge
industry (Morley, 1974), by high levels of
affluence, education, and leisure, by
instability and uncertainty, by change
becoming a way of life, and by the
requirement for new organizational, political
and cultural values (Trist, 1970). In this
society, traditional organizational forms
remain; traditional organizational politics
diminish, however (Schick, 1971). The
An earlier version of this
postindustrial society demands that
paper, same title, was
organizational decision making be more
presented at the Academy of frequent and faster and it requires Management Annual
``consideration of more variables and more
Meeting, History Division,
complex relationships among these
San Diego, CA, August
1998.
variables'' (Huber, 1984, p. 933). In essence,
decision making becomes a great deal more
complex than it was in the past (Simon, 1973).
Hence, it is likely that today effective
managers in many organizations, especially
Keywords

Organizational philosophy,
Industrial performance,
Management theory

Management Decision
39/10 [2001] 880±889

# MCB University Press
[ISSN 0025-1747]

[ 880 ]

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at http://www.emerald-library.com/ft

in large service-based and high-tech
organizations, interpret the 14 principles of
management quite differently from the way
they were interpreted earlier in the century.
The objective of this paper is therefore, based
on existing literature, to compare the
interpretation of the meaning of the 14
principles then and now, and to package the
existing ideas into a contemporary
management framework. Table I outlines the
comparison of the interpretation. Another
objective is to identify some of the barriers,
such as corporate culture and individual
motivations, managers encounter in
implementing the contemporary framework.

The 14 principles of management
then and now
Principle 1. Division of work
Then

This principle proposes that work can be
performed more efficiently and more
productively if it is divided into smaller
elements and assigning specific elements to
specific...
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