Define the 12 negotiating variables
* Basic concept of negotiation: It might be applied in a different way from one culture to another. Usually the negotiation process is highly influenced by the cultural dimensions of negotiators. Sometimes process is highly affected when one negotiator applies ‘high context’ while the other at ‘low context’. * Selection of negotiators: The variation from culture to culture. Depends on the level of decentralization at an organization. Usually cultures assign diverse importance to the information of the focus matter, seniority, family connections, gender, age, experience and status. * Role of individual aspirations: is a technique of identifying the counterpart’s purpose out of the two goals categorized: organization-oriented and self-fulfilling. Under organization-oriented goals, negotiators act on behalf of their companies, whereas, under self-fulfilling goals, negotiators may act for their own personal interests. * Concern with protocol: The countries affect the degree of formality used by the parties in the negotiation. Methods of welcome as well as dress codes are impacted by one’s culture. For example: In many conventional cultures, when a man places the other person’s business card in his wallet and then puts the wallet in his back pocket, this act might be considerate as an insult at some countries. * Significance of type of issue: Regards the different kind of issues or problems at negotiation, consists of two contrasting issues: substantive and relationship-based. Under substantive issues, negotiators concentrate on the control and use of resources. Under relationship-based issues, negotiators center on their mutual or reciprocal interest concernings about the ongoing topic. * Complexity of language: Communication is an important factor on business, the method of transmitting messages during negotiation consists on two basic concepts: Verbal, where the information is transmitted by complex...
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