Event: 110-meter Hurdles
1.Hip flexion/ Knee Extension; Hip extension/ Knee flexion. Major muscles involved include the quadriceps, the inner thigh, the hamstrings and gluteal region. Also, leg strength in the calve muscles is important. 2.Abdominal contraction (rectus femoris, obliques)
3.Shoulder flexion/extension; Elbow flexion and extension; Use of the lower and upper back. Muscles involved include the latissimus dorsi, rhomboids, trapezius, deltoids and the pectorals. *The upper body muscles are used mainly to prevent lateral movement when crossing the hurdle and swinging of the torso during late stages of the race (when the body is tired). II.Physiological Analysis
A.The 110-meter hurdle race has three major performance factors: speed, acceleration and leg power/strength. The performances rely entirely on anaerobic (oxygen-lacking) energy resources. To be successful in a 110 hurdle race, the athlete should focus on: a)Increasing strength and power of Type IIa muscle fibers, as this increases rate of muscle contraction. b)Cardiovascular exercise in the off-season mainly to build a strong base and muscular endurance for the in-season. c)Increasing mainly lower-body strength as there is a direct relationship between strength and speed. d)Including flexibility* training, strength training, and sprint training altogether can significantly improve results, as opposed to just sprinting alone. e)As far as energy systems are concerned, the sprint hurdles uses both Creatine Phosphate and Glycolitic. However, the predominant energy system is by far CP, as this provides the quick starting and reactive power as well as the acceleration. However, this energy system only lasts about 10 seconds. This is when the Glycolitic system kicks in, as it helps maintain muscular endurance to the end.
B.In terms of dividing the macrocycle into mesocycles, and then classifying them into off, pre, and in-seasons, they are differentiated in that:
a)Strength training is increased and this is designed to increase leg strength and power. Off-season goals for the weight room are to increase leg strength & power; while on the track, maintaining anaerobic speed and threshold high on the track is most important. This is accomplished by intense cardiovascular training throughout.
b)After the off-season, strength training will taper off gradually starting in the pre-season and continuing into the in-season. Strength training should be more high-speed/reps and lower resistance during this time as well. Conditioning will also change significantly. Sprinting workout reps will reach close to speed max and will be more sport specific. And conditioning will be less cardiovascular and much more anaerobic (this is especially true for the in-season).
*Will greatly increase stride length and improve transition between concentric/eccentric phases as well as prevent injury.
Note: To be a successful hurdler, one needs to develop speed by increasing strength AND anaerobic conditioning; this is complemented tremendously once good flexibility is established.
III. Injury Analysis of Common Injuries
1.Hip Flexor Strain
•Involves illiopsoas muscles and caused by overuse.
•Inflammation of bursa between bones and muscles
•Caused by overuse or a possible blow to the region
3.Pulled (Strained) Hamstring
•Tearing of muscle tissue of the hamstring muscles
•Caused mainly by sudden eccentric contraction, or in other words, the muscle in trying to contract but another force is forcing the muscle in the opposite direction. 4.Chondromalacia (Runner’s Knee)
•Irritation and blistering of under-surface of kneecap (patella) •Caused mainly by overuse and sometimes kneecap subluxation 5.Dislocated and Subluxated Kneecap
•Sliding of the kneecap up and down a groove on the end of the femur as the knee bends •Caused mainly by an underdeveloped vastus medialis...