10 Treaties by Gracious M'Hango

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A treaty is defined as a formal, written agreement between sovereign states or between states and international organizations (Nathan, 1977). The subjects of treaties span the whole spectrum of international relations: peace, trade, independence, reparations, territorial boundaries, human rights, immigration, and many others. Harold (1936) defines a treaty as “an express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.” It may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention or exchange of letters and all forms of agreements are under international law. This essay will mention 10 treaties that took place in international relations, it will analyse the dates and the places these treaties were created then it will discuss the closes of agreements and their objectives and lastly a conclusion will be given. The Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community: regional co-operation in East Africa goes long into history, the first attempt at forming an East African Community between Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda started in 1967 and failed in 1977 as the three countries could not agree on a number of important economic and political issues. The Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community was signed in November 1999 and entered into force in July 2000. The newly founded EAC took its seat in Arusha, Tanzania. In June 2007, the Republics of Burundi and Rwanda signed Treaties of Accession to the EAC. (eacgermany.org) explains that The EAC aims at widening and deepening co-operation among the Partner States in, among others, political, economic and social fields for their mutual benefit. African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty: as a consequence of the first French nuclear test in the dessert of Western Sahara, the General Assembly appealed the United Nations Member States to stop these tests carried out in the densely populated territories of North Africa. Three years after, the African Heads of State and Government gathered at the Summit Conference of the African Unity (OAU) solemnly declared by means of an international treaty that they were ready to achieve a treaty prohibiting the production and the absolute control over nuclear weapons in their region (Scott, Rand, and Preez 2008). The Treaty was opened for signature on April 12 1996 in Cairo and came into effect with the 28th ratification on 15 July 2009 (Rosen 1997). They affirmed that the evolution of the international situation was conducive to the implementation of the Cairo Declaration, as well as the relevant provisions of the 1986 OAU Declaration on Security, Disarmament and Development (au.int). Rosen (1997) explains that the Treaty prohibits the research, development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition, testing, possession, control or stationing of nuclear explosive devices in the territory of parties to the Treaty and the dumping of radioactive wastes in the African zone by Treaty parties. The Treaty also prohibits any attack against nuclear installations in the zone by Treaty parties and requires them to maintain the highest standards of physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment, which are to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. (armscontrol.org) goes further to explain that the Treaty requires all parties to apply full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards to all their peaceful nuclear activities. The Maastricht Treaty; The European is based on the rule of law, this means that every action taken by the EU is founded on treaties that have been approved voluntarily and democratically by all EU member countries. Some Treaties are amended to make the EU more efficient and transparent, to prepare for new member countries and to introduce new areas of cooperation. The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union or TEU) represents a new stage in European integration since it opens the way to...
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