SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
Is the science that makes theories about social relations
Theories are tentative explanations of the world we can see or measure SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
Sociological Theories have certain common characteristics: 1. They are always tentative, thorough and economical
2. They should be true
3. They must be tested against the world we can observe or measure 4. They should be relevant to every day life and they should not be obvious SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
Sociology Contrasted With Other Disciplines:
1. Sociology is different from Journalism and History. Both Journalism and History describe real events and usually base their descriptions on a hidden theory. Sociology is different. It reveals and states its theories, in order to test them SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
2. Sociology differs from philosophy. Both Sociology and Philosophy use logic to make and test theories by means of logical deduction. Theorizing is quite different in these two fields. Sociological theories must stand up logically, but they must also stand up to measureable reality in a way philosophical theories need not SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
3. Sociology differs from Psychology. Psychologists study the behavior of individual humans (or, occasionally, animals) under varying experimental conditions. Sociologists study a social relationship or group relationships observed in nature: for example, the family, club, organizations or total society SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
Sociology is concerned with making scientifically valid theories about social relations. These theories should be “scientific” in the usual meaning of the word. SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
Some Methodological Difficulties
1. Sociologists can rarely, if ever, experiment on groups or families, let alone societies. The Sociologist must use a large variety of research methods. SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
2. The existence of competing paradigms. Paradigms are ways of thinking. Different paradigms define which problems are key to understanding social relations and also which research procedures are most appropriate and which evidence is most relevant. SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
3. The nature of the Sociologists’ object of study – people and their relationships. Social reality has its subjective and objective, aspects. Therefore, to accurately explain and predict social relations, sociologists must understand actors’ perceptions, beliefs and expectations, as well as their goals and opportunities. SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
4. The non-repetitiveness of history and the uniqueness of relations we study. Sociologists will never find 2 societies that are identical in every respect except the one of theoretical interest. WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?
The Science of Society has been around since the French thinker Auguste Comte named it Sociology in 1838. The Mission of Sociology is to expose the nature of social life and point out how it can be changed. Such topics as child abuse, corporate crime, drug addiction, environmental pollution, poverty, sexism and social deviance invite controversy. SOCIOLOGY looks at the nature of these problems, and their causes, consequences and solutions. WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?
How does Sociological knowledge enter into corporate and Public decision? 1. Sociological theories are increasingly employed by policy makers and others in framing questions for research (Well to do = less dropout rates) 2. Sociological methods are more and more used in research by drawing upon developments in psychology and statistics, sociologists have polished the art and perfected the science of the sample survey (Give accurate descriptions of large populations) WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?
The Founders Of Modern Sociology:
1. Auguste Comte (France 1798-1857)
2. Karl Marx (Germany 1818-1833)
3. Spencer (England 1820-1903)
4. Emile Durkheim ( France 1858-1917
5. Max Weber (Germany 1864-1920)
A SCIENTIFIC THEORY...
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