1. What Are Operating Systems? What Are Their Functions? Describe the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (Osi Model) & Its Seven Layers.

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An operating system (OS) is a set of computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. At the foundation of all system software, the OS performs basic tasks such as controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and output devices, facilitating networking, and managing files. The computerized system may be a computer, a workstation, a server, a PC, a notebook, a smartphone, a road navigation device or another system with "intelligence" of its own. It also may provide a graphical user interface for higher level functions. Types of Operating System - DOS (Disk Operating System), UNIX, LINUX, Windows, Windows NT

Operating System Functions
At the simplest level, an operating system does two things:
1.It manages the hardware and software resources of the system. ). 2.It provides a stable, consistent way for applications to deal with the hardware without having to know all the details of the hardware. The first task, managing the hardware and software resources, is very important, as various programs and input methods compete for the attention of the central processing unit (CPU) and demand memory, storage and input/output (I/O) bandwidth for their own purposes. In this capacity, the operating system plays the role of the good parent, making sure that each application gets the necessary resources while playing nicely with all the other applications, as well as husbanding the limited capacity of the system to the greatest good of all the users and applications. The second task, providing a consistent application interface, is especially important if there is to be more than one of a particular type of computer using the operating system, or if the hardware making up the computer is ever open to change. A consistent application program interface (API) allows a software developer to write an application on one computer and have a high level of confidence that it will run on another computer of...
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