1. Discuss the Evolution of Market

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1. Discuss the evolution of Market

Marketing has evolved through three successive stages of development: Product orientation, Sales orientation, and market orientation. Product orientation stage
Firms adopted the “product orientation” typically focus on the quality and quantity of offerings, while assuming that customers will seek out and buy well made products with reasonable prices. . This mindset is commonly associated with a long ago era, when demand exceeded supply. The primary focus in business was efficiency, cost control, produce large quantities of products. Finding the customer was viewed as a minor function. There wasn’t much need to worry about what customer wanted because it was highly predictable. Most people spent the majority of their incomes on necessities. The term “marketing” was not in use. Instead, Sales executive’s responsibility was to supervise a sales force. Adopting this approach began with industrial revolution in the latter part of the 1800s, through the early 1930s.

Sales-Orientation stage
World economic crisis (Great depression) in the late 1920 changed perceptions. The main economic problem no longer was “How to manufacture efficiently” but rather it became” How to sell the resulting output” Managers began to realize that they need postproduction efforts to sell their products, in an environment where consumers had limited resources. Sales orientation is characterized by “heavy reliance on promotional activities to sell a product. In this stage, Firms spend larger share of resources on Advertising. And sales executive gain more respect and more responsibilities which put more pressure on them. Some managers went overly aggressive selling and used unethical advertising tactics. As a result, selling developed bad reputation in the eye of many. This approach was common in the 1950s when modern marketing began to emerge.

Market-Orientation stage
At the end of the World War II, there was strong demand due to wartime...
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