美国文学史及选读1复习资料

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History And Anthology of American Literature (VolumeⅠ)
美国文学史及选读1

PartⅠThe Literature of Colonial America殖民主义时期的文学 1. 17世纪早期English and European explorers开始登陆美洲。在他们之前100多年Caribbean Islands, Mexico and other Parts of South America已被the Spanish占领。 2. 17th早期English settlements in Virginia and Massachusetts(弗吉尼亚和马萨诸塞)开始了美国历史 3. 美国最早殖民者(earliest settlers)included Dutch ,Swedes ,Germans ,Freunch ,Spaniards ,Italians and Portugueses (荷兰人,瑞典人,德国人,法国人,西班牙人,意大利人及葡萄牙人等)。 4. 美国早期文学主要为the narratives and journals of these settlements采用in diaries and in journals(日记和日志),他们写关于the land with dense forests and deep-blue lakes and rich soil. 5. 第一批美国永久居民:the first permanent English settlement in North America was established at Jamestown,Virginia in 1607(北美弗吉尼亚詹姆斯顿)。 6. 船长约翰·史密斯Captain John Smith他的作品(reports of exploration)17th早期出版,被认为是美国第一部真正意义上的文学作品in the early 1600s,have been described as the first distinctly American literature written in English.他讲述了filled with themes, myths, images, scenes, character and events,吸引了朝圣者和清教徒前往lure the Pilgrims and the Puritans. 7. 美国第一位作家:1608年Captain John Smith写了封信《自殖民地第一次在弗吉尼亚垦荒以来发生的各种事件的真实介绍》“A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Hath Happened in Virginia Since the First Planting of That Colony”. 8. 他的第二本书1612年《弗吉尼亚地图,附:一个乡村的描述》“A Map of Virginia: with a Description of the Country”. 9. 他一共出版了八本书,其中有关于新英格兰的历史及描述。其破产后做为向导sought a post as guide to the Pilgrims.他1624年《弗吉尼亚通史》“General History of Virginia”,讲述了传奇故事how the Indian princess Pocahontas( 波卡洪特斯)saved him. 10. 他保存了殖民者在Jamestown早期开荒史及explored the rivers and bays around the Chesapeake region(切萨皮克地区),最重要的是he saw from the beginning what was eventually to be a basic principle of American history, the need of “workers”instead of “gentlemen”for the tough job of planting colonies and pushing the frontiers westward. 11. 早期新英格兰文学主要关于theological, moral, historical and political. 12. 清教徒坚韧耐劳,严格遵守教义the Puritans in New England embraced hardships, together with the discipline of a harsh church想建立神权社会found a theocracy,他们生活简朴,意志坚定,我行我素,不屈不挠地斗争they had toughness, purpose and character, they grappled strongly with challenges they set themselves.他们的基本价值观;注重勤劳,节俭,虔诚和节制hard work, thrift, piety and sobriety这些也成了早期美国作品主导思想。

一、William Bradford and John Winthrop威廉·布拉德福德和约翰·温思罗普 普利茅斯第一任首长:William Bradford;
波斯顿第一任首长: John Winthrop.
1. William Bradford:《普利茅斯开发历史》“The History of Plymouth Plantation”文章从1630年开始写起an account of the small group of Puritans who migrated from England to Amsterdam and then to the New Wold.文字简洁,认真负责,直接叙述,可读性强simplicity and earnestness of the book, with its direct reporting, make it readable and moving.1637年他用简单的律诗对自己一生写了个总结,后来科登·马瑟写道:他是众人之福,也是众人之父“a common blessing and father to them all” 2. John Winthrop:《新英格兰历史》“The History of New England”.1630年登上“阿贝亚”(Arbella)to Massachusetts并开始写日记keep a journal and to the rest of his life.1826年正式出版is notable for its candid simplicity and honesty. 3. 他们并不出于创作需要而是记录历史,但却运用了直接生动的散文格式使文章成为了好的文学作品 the need to record important events in permanent form. Yet, through a direct and vigorous prose style, each account literary excellence.

4. 清教徒(Puritan):就是要净化他们的宗教信仰和行为方式,要纯洁自己信仰的人Puritans wanted to make pure their religious beliefs and practices, The Puritan was “Would-be purifier”. 总认为自己是上帝选民looked upon themselves as a chosen people.对他们的生活方式提出异议就是反对上帝旨意anyone who challenged their way of life was opposing God’s Will and was not to be accepted.对自己的信仰视之如命,对别人信仰不能容忍they were zealous in defense of their own beliefs but often intolerant of the beliefs of others. 制定法律限制个人生活行为made laws about private morality as well as public behavior霍桑称他们为“黑眉毛的古板的清教徒”“stern and black-browed Puritans”.

二、John Cotton and Roger Williams约翰·科登和罗杰·威廉姆斯 1. John Cotton第一批知识分子代言人,称为“新英格兰教父”the Patriarch of New England”. 1633年到Boston开始一直是这社区精神导师,他所宣讲的由宗教来统治国家的神权思想直接影响了当时人们的行为 he was the “teacher”(spiritual leader) of the community and its guiding influence toward the ideal of theocracy(a state ruled by the...
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