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CHAPTER 4

Personality and Values

CHAPTER

81

4

Personality and Values
LEAR I G OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, students should be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

I.

Define personality, describe how it is measured, and explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality.
Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model.
Demonstrate how the Big Five traits predict behavior at work. Identify other personality traits relevant to OB.
Define values, demonstrate the importance of values, and contrast terminal and instrumental values.

PERSONALITY
A.
What Is Personality?

Personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make a person
unique.
B.

Personality Traits
1.
The Big Five Model

An impressive body of research supports that five basic
dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions.
The five basic dimensions are:
o
Extraversion. Comfort level with relationships.
Extroverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and
sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and
quiet.
o
Agreeableness. Individual’s propensity to defer to
others. High agreeableness people—cooperative,

Copyright ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

82

PART TWO

The Individual



warm, and trusting. Low agreeableness people—
cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
o
Conscientiousness. A measure of reliability. A
high conscientious person is responsible,
organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who
score low on this dimension are easily distracted,
disorganized, and unreliable.
o
Emotional stability. A person’s ability to
withstand stress. People with positive emotional
stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and
secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be
nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.
o
Openness to experience. The range of interests
and fascination with novelty. Extremely open
people are creative, curious, and artistically
sensitive. Those at the other end of the openness
category are conventional and find comfort in the
familiar.
Research found important relationships between these
personality dimensions and job performance.
o
The results showed that conscientiousness
predicted job performance for all occupational
groups.
o
Individuals who are dependable, reliable, careful,
thorough, able to plan, organized, hardworking,
persistent, and achievement-oriented tend to have
higher job performance.
o
Employees higher in conscientiousness develop
higher levels of job knowledge.
o
There is a strong and consistent relationship
between conscientiousness and organizational
citizenship behavior (OCB).
o
For the other personality dimensions, predictability
depended upon both the performance criterion and
the occupational group.
o
Extroversion predicts performance in managerial
and sales positions.
o
Openness to experience is important in predicting
training proficiency.

Copyright ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

CHAPTER 4

C.

Personality and Values

83

Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB
1.
Core Self-Evaluation (Self-perspective)

People who have a positive core self-evaluation see
themselves as effective, capable, and in control.

People who have a negative core self-evaluation tend to
dislike themselves.

Locus of control
o
A person’s perception of the source of his/her fate
is termed locus of control.
o
Internals: People who believe that they are masters
of their own fate
Internals believe that health is substantially
under their own control through proper
habits; their incidences of sickness and,
hence, their absenteeism, are lower.
Internals generally perform better on their
jobs, but one should consider differences in
jobs.
Internals search more actively for
information before making a decision, are
more motivated to achieve, and make a
greater attempt to...
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