1. When raw scores from normal distribution are converted to standard scores, the resulting distribution has a mean equal to ________ and SD equal to _________.

2. Scores on a particular test are normally distributed with a mean of 70 and an SD of 15. Between what two scores would you expect?
a. 68% of the scores to fall between ____________ and _____________? b. 95% of the scores to fall between ____________ and _____________?

3. A distribution of scores has a mean of 70 and an SD of 5. The following four scores were drawn from that distribution: 58, 65, 73 and 82.
a. Transform the raw scores to standard scores.
b. Calculate the percentile for each score (percentage below the score).

4. According to documented norms, the distribution of gestation time is approximately normal with mean 266 days and SD 16 days.
a. What is the probability (percentage) that a baby has a gestation time greater than 280 days?
b. What is the probability (percentage) that a baby has a gestation time less than 250 days?
c. What is the probability (percentage) that a baby has a gestation time between 242 and 270 days?
5. The average time between infection with the AIDS virus and developing AIDS has been estimated to be 8 years with a standard deviation of about 2 years. Approximately what fraction of people develop AIDS within 4 years of infection? a. 5%

b. 2.5%
c. 32%
d. 16%
e. 1%
6. The distribution of the heights of students in a large class is roughly bell-shaped. Moreover, the average height is 68 inches, and approximately 95% of the heights are between 62 and 74 inches. Thus, the standard deviation of the height distribution is approximately equal to:

...MN 215 A & B
October 02, 2012
ZScores, Z Tests and t Tests
Overview and Review
At the beginning of the course we learned that there are two branches of statistics, namely, parametric and non-parametric. Further we learned that parametric statistical processes are broken down into two other categories, namely descriptive statistical processes and inferential. We learned also that descriptive statistics (mean, mode, median, standard deviation, and frequencies) are only to be used to describe the characteristics of the data rather than draw conclusions of make inferences from the measurement data collected. However, the importance of descriptive statistics cannot be undermined as they form the basis for the workings of inferential statistical processes – especially the mean. In data analysis one of the most important concepts to remember is that regardless of the topic or issue being investigated all is based on the mean of a data set. Although we cannot draw conclusion or make predictions from descriptive statistics their usefulness in inferential statistics is significant.
As stated inferential statistics is a branch of statistics that is used in making inferences about traits or characteristics of a greater population on the basis of sample measurement data. The primary goal of inferential statistics is to leap beyond the measurement data at hand and make inferences about a greater population. Take for example...

...E) Altman Z-score
Years
2012 (RM’000)
2013 (RM’000)
X1=
= 0.3833
= 0.2760
X2=
= 0.3975
= 0.2977
X3=
= 0.4248
= 0.4423
X4=
= 0.3841
= 0.2801
X5=
= 2.3047
= 2.3596
Zscore for year 2012:
Z= 1.2 (0.3833) + 1.4 (0.3975) + 3.3 (0.4248) + 0.6 (0.3841) + 1.0 (2.3047) = 4.9535
Zscore for year 2013:
Z= 1.2 (0.2760) + 1.4 (0.2977) + 3.3 (0.4423) + 0.6 (0.2801) + 1.0 (2.3596) = 4.7352
The performance of the company in year 2013 decrease (0.2183) if compared with year 2012. However, z-score still above 2.99. There was 2 types of z-score model, since Dutch Lady company was public manufacturing firm, so it use the original Z-score model which means that a z-score above 2.99 shows the solvency. Thus, this company considered as safe zone and the bankruptcy of this company is unlikely to occur. The firm unlikely to default and the company’s credit risk is low.
If a firm is non-manufacturing firm, it have to use modified z-score model. This type of model did not include the fifth ratio (X5: Sales/ Total assets). It was because they have less total assets if compare with manufacturing firms and the value from sales to total assets ratio will have a greater change in a z-score. It was...

...Shannon Ciuk Honors 100-01 April 29, 2011
Q&A #10
The article The Human Mind and Human Art by Trevor Pateman was the most interesting to me. The reason being I am a psychology major and he made a number of references to psychology studies…it even sounded like a psychology paper. The psychologist that stuck out the most to me was Chomsky. A reason for this may be the fact that we recently just covered his work in my developmental psychology class. I found it very interesting that the author, Paterman, could relate Chomsky’s work on language development to art….I never would have made this connection.
I also found it interesting that all of the articles mainly focused on drawings and painting as forms of expression. I myself am a dancer and I think dance falls under the category of arts. I find it very helpful in expressing myself; it is a great way to relieve your feelings. Especially when you get into different types of dance. Personally I take hip-hop, jazz, and ballet. For me hip-hop is a good expression of being happy and energetic or it could be used for the complete opposite, anger. Jazz could be used for a variety of expressions including happiness, anger and sadness. Ballet again I think can be used for a variety of emotions, but usually it is to soft music.
Questions:
1. How do you think human life would be different if we didn’t have art….no paintings/drawings, no TV, no music…just plain black and white??
2. How do you use art to...

...Altman Z-score is a financial model to predict the likelihood business failure in a company and created by Edward I. Altman in 1968. Altman developed a z-score model using ratios as its foundation. The purpose of the Z-score model is to measure a company's financial health and predict the probability of failure up to 2-3 years in advance by using a weighting system combined with four or five financial ratios. Altman created three different Z-score models which is original Z-score model, model "A" z-score and model "B" z-score.
The original Z-score model was developed in 1968. This predictor is a statistical data from public manufacturing that combines with five financial ratios with the opinion that ratios measuring profitability, liquidity and insolvency of the company. First ratio is working capital/total assets (X1). This financial ratio is determine the ability of company to cover its short term financial obligation. Altman's research founds this ratio to be more helpful than other liquidity ratios. Second ratio is retained earning/total assets (X2) measure the ability of company to accumulate earnings by using its assets. The lower the ratio, the more a company is funding assets by borrowing instead of through retained earning which increase the...

...“Can Altman Z-score Models Predict Business
Failures in Greece?”
Nikolaos Gerantonis
Department of Management and Business Administration
University of Piraeus, 4 Ag. Marinas Str, Greece
Konstantinos Vergos
PhD, Director of Research Department, Cyclos Securities S.A
39 Panepistimiou Str,10564, Athens, Greece
Apostolos G. Christopoulos
Corresponding Author
University of Athens, Department of Economics
5 Stadiou Str, Athens 105 62, Greece
E-mail: axristop@econ.uoa.gr
Abstract
This paper analyses whether Altman Z-score models, can predict correctly company
failures. The empirical analysis examines all listed in the Athens Exchange companies,
during the period 2002-2008 and discontinuations of operation for these companies during
the same period. It is investigated whether Z-score models can predict bankruptcies for a
period up to three years earlier. Our study shows that Altman model performs well in
predicting failures. This is in line with other findings. The empirical results are interesting
since they can be used by company management for financing decisions, by regulatory
authorities and by portfolio managers in stock selection.
Keywords: Valuation, Altman, Regulation, Share price, Capital markets, bankruptcy
JEL Classification Codes: G33:G14
1. Introduction
1.1. Examined Issues
In the study it is examined whether z-score alone can...

...Lourda Finn
26/05/2014
The Judgement Title: Director of Public Prosecutions –v- Tully.
Neutral Citation: [2009] IECC 1.
Date of Delivery: 07/13/2009.
Court: Circuit Court.
Composition of Court:
Judgement by: White Michael J.
Status of Judgement: Approved.
1. Introduction to Court Report.
The background evidence in this case was first heard in the Navan District Court on 14/5/2007. Mr Kevin Tully was convicted under the Road Traffic Act 1961. He was fined £500 and the automatic penalty points were applied. His appeal centres on his contention that he never received the fixed penalty point notice in the first instance and as a result of this non-notification his conviction was flawed.
2. Introduction to Court System.
The Irish Courts system consist of a designated court hierarchy with differing jurisdictions and is divided into two categories; Criminal and Civil. Most cases start at the lower courts in the first instance.
The District Court is local and limited to monetary amounts up to £15.000, it has jurisdiction to hear criminal (summary), civil and family matters. There is no jury in the district courts.
The Circuit Court is limited to local and monetary amounts up to £75.000, it has jurisdiction to hear criminal (indictable), civil, family matters and appeals from the district court. A jury can be present in Circuit court criminal trials.
The High Court in civil cases sits in Dublin and has full jurisdiction on monetary amounts over...

...Please read the following instructions carefully. Deductions will be made for not following directions.
General Instructions:
1. Do not send your answers online.
2. For uniformity, answers will be handwritten and placed in Yellow Pad(s).
3. NO writing at the back (any answers written on the back of the yellow pad will not be considered).
4. Write legibly and do not use pencil.
5. Write yourNAME (Last, First) and SECTION at the upper left hand corner of every sheet.
6. No need to write the question on the yellow pad.
7. Show complete solution and box or encircle final answer.
8. Do proper labeling (i.e. indicate if the expected value is expected return, variance, etc.)
9. Stapling must be on the upper right side.
Note:
Late submissions of papers will NOT be accepted.
*for any question/clarifications feel free to email me: neriza.casas@gmail.com
1. Nationally, 38% of fourth – graders cannot read an age – appropriate book. The following data show the number of children, by age, identified as learning disabled under special education. Most of these children have reading problems that should be identified and corrected before third grade. Current federal law prohibits most children from receiving extra help from special education programs until they fall behind by approximately two year’s worth of learning, and that typically means third grade or later (USA Today, September 6, 2001).
AGE | NUMBER OF...

...was not correct, after all the patients needs were paramount and although I am a student, I should have acted in the patients’ best interests. Overall I have found it very rewarding reflecting on this incident, I have been able to identify my weaknesses that can now be turned into strengths. I now feel that I am a stronger person growing in confidence and now will ensure I confront my fears of acting against someone in the defence of a patient.
Action Plan
Using Gibbs’s reflective cycle has helped me make more sense of the situation and put things into perspective, recognising how I can put this learning experience to positive use in my future practice as a Nursing professional. If this situation were to arise again I know I would now have the courage to question the nurses attitude at an earlier stage pointing out that ‘bad practice’ by anyone is not acceptable. I have made arrangements to discus this incident, and others I am concerned with to the ward manager, as it my first consideration to protect the interests and safety of patients, in line with the NMC (2002) Code of Professional Conduct, (clause 8). This reflection has highlighted the need to increase my knowledge and understanding of the process of loss and grief, I will address these issues by visiting the bereavement officer for the trust, listening and learning from the qualified staff and by reading relevant literature.
Conclusion
In conclusion it can be seen that the nurse has...