X-Y Theory and Expectancy Theory of Motivation

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McGregor's theory X and theory Y
McGregor developed two theories of human behaviour at work: Theory and X and Theory Y. He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between. Theory X workers could be described as follows:

- Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible
- Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led - Individuals who desire security
The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. Theory Y workers were characterised by McGregor as:

- Consider effort at work as just like rest or play
- Ordinary people who do not dislike work. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment - Individuals who seek responsibility (if they are motivated0 The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. Management ends up being authoritative and a repressive work culture develops. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment (or culture) where workers can show and develop their creativity. The management is empowering and responsible and work culture is achievement oriented Expectancy theory

Expectancy theory proposes that a person will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior by the desirability of the outcome. it depends on 2 factors: 1. how much a person desires a particular goal

2. how likely an employee thinks that he can get a particular goal. assumptions in this theory:
1. behaviour is determined by a combination of forces in the individual and the environment. 2. people make decisions about their own...
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