2. What are the main steps followed when solving a problem?
Research and understand the problem, verify that the benefits of solving the problem outweigh the costs, define requirements for a solution, develop a set of possible solutions (alternatives), decide which solution is best, define the details of the chosen solution, and monitor to make sure that you obtain the desired benefits. 6. List the six fundamental technologies an analyst needs to understand.
Computers and how they work; file, database, and storage technologies; input and output hardware; computer networks and protocols; programming languages and operating systems; and communication and collaboration.
7. List four types of tools the analyst needs to use to develop systems.
Software packages used to develop systems, integrated development environments (IDEs), computer-aided system modeling and code generation tools, testing tools, and documentation support tools.
8. List five types of techniques used during system development.
Project planning techniques, cost/benefit analysis techniques, interviewing techniques, requirements modeling techniques, architectural design techniques, network configuration techniques, and database design techniques.
10. What are some of the things an analyst needs to understand about people?
Most important is communication skills. Other skills include being able to build rapport, be able to understand and translate people's problems into business requirements. The analyst must play many roles, inlcuding teacher, mentor, confidante, collaborator, and manager.
2. Describe how you would go about solving a problem you face. Is the approach taken by a systems analyst, as described in the text, any different?
Students’ answers should be based on the steps in Figure 1-1 on page 5. You need to thoroughly understand the problem, verify it is worth solving, define requirements for a solution, generate a list of alternatives, decide which solution is best, define the details of the solution, implement the solution, and follow up to make sure the solution is working.
4. What is the difference between technical skills and business skills? Explain how a computer science graduate might be strong in one area and weak in another. Discuss how the preparation for a CIS or MIS graduate is different from that for a computer science graduate.
Technical skills involve understanding and using technology, including specific computer hardware and software. Business skills involve understanding business organizations in general and how they operate, including knowledge of functional areas, such as accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, production, and so on. Computer science graduates are very strong in technical skills; however, they have not studied management, accounting, finance, or marketing. Therefore, they will have more difficulty understanding the business problems faced by organizations. CIS and MIS graduates study both technology and business, so they are better prepared to understand business problems and the needs of end users.
5. Explain why an analyst needs to understand how people think, how they learn, how they react to change, how they communicate, and how they work.
Many business problems require support for communication and decision making of users. Analysts need to understand human decision making and thought processes in order to provide support for the problem. They also need to understand the limitations of human thinking and memory when designing the user interface. On a political level, it is important to understand how people think to be able to predict their attitudes and reactions to problems and solutions provided. System developers need to make systems easy to learn and use, as well as provide help and training resources for users.Therefore, they need to understand how users learn. Because any new...