O Level Chemistry Revision Notes

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Hwa Chong Institution (High School)
Secondary 4 End of Year Examinations
Chemistry Revision Notes

List of topics:

1. Atomic Structure
2. Separation Techniques
3. Chemical Bonds and Bonding (Ionic, Covalent)
4. Metals
5. Properties and structures of compounds
6. Qualitative Analysis
7. Acids, Bases and Salts
8. Chemical Periodicity
9. Chemical Calculations
10. Air and Environment
11. Electrochemistry (Including Redox reactions)
12. Thermochemistry
13. Rates of Reaction
14. Chemical Equilibrium
15. States of Matter
16. Organic Chemistry

1) Atomic Structure

(a) Model of Atom

The model of atom consists of 3 subatomic particle, namely the protons, electrons and neutrons. Of which, the protons and neutrons are found within the nucleus of the atom. As such, the nucleus of the atom has a positive charge, and most of the mass of the atom is located in the nucleus due to the insignificance of the weight of electrons. Surrounding the nucleus is a cloud of electrons, which move randomly around orbitals and sub orbitals at nearly the speed of light. Other than this, most of the atom is empty space. The overall atom is electrically neutral, as the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, while the nucleus carries no charge.

(b) Sub atomic particles

• Protons, which carries a positive electric charge
• Neutrons, which has the same mass as a proton but carried no charge • Electrons, which carries a negative electric charge

| |relative mass |relative charge | |Proton |1 |+1 | |Neutron |1 |0 | |Electron |1/1836 |-1 |

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