Review Sheet – Chapters 23 and 24
1. In the Presidential election of 1868, U.S. Grant’s victory was due to the votes of former black slaves. 2. In the late 19th century, those political candidates who campaigned by ‘waiving the bloody shirt’ were reminding voters of the treasonous Confederate Democrats during the Civil War. 3. A weapon that was used to put Boss Tweed, leader of New York City’s infamous Tweed Ring, in jail was the cartoons of the political satirist Thomas Nast. 4. The Credit Mobilier scandal involved railroad construction kickbacks involving the Union Pacific Railroad. 5. One cause of the Panic of 1873 was the construction of more factories than the market could bear. 6. As a solution to the panic of 1873, debtors suggested inflationary policies. 7. One result of Republican ‘hard money’ policies was to help elect a Democratic House of Representatives in 1874, and later the creation of the Greenback Labor party. 8. During the Gilded Age, the Democrats and the Republicans had few significant economic differences. 9. The presidential elections of the 1870s and 1880s aroused great interest among voters. 10. One reason for the heavy turnouts and partisan fervor was the Gilded Age was sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties. 11. During the Gilded Age, the lifeblood of both the Democratic and the Republican parties was political patronage. 12. The major problem in the 1876 presidential election centered on the two sets of election returns submitted by Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana. 13. The Compromise of 1877 resulted the end Reconstruction, and the withdrawal of federal troops from the South. 14. The seque3nce of presidential terms of the ‘forgettable presidents’ of the Gilded Age (including Cleveland’s two non-consecutive terms) was Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, and Cleveland. 15. In the 1896 case of Plessy vs. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that ‘separate but equal’ facilities were constitutional. 16. At the end of Reconstruction, Southern whites disenfranchised African-Americans with poll taxes (made illegal in federal elections via the 24th Amendment in 1964, and in state elections subsequent to that via Supreme Court ruling), literacy tests (made illegal by the Voting Rights Act of 1965), grandfather clauses (made illegal by Supreme Court decision in 1915), and economic intimidation. 17. The legal codes that established the system of segregation were called Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow was the name of a character in a minstrel show. 18. The railroad strike of 1877 started when the four largest railroads cut salaries by ten percent.
19. Labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s resulted in the use of federal troops during strikes. 20. In the wake of anti-Chinese violence in California, the U.S. Congress passed a law prohibiting immigration of Chinese laborers to American (the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.) 21. One of the main reasons that the Chinese came to the U.S was to dig for gold. 22. Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office; the second was James Garfield. The third was William McKinley, and the fourth and last was JFK. 23. President James A. Garfield was assassinated by a deranged, disappointed office seeker. 24. The Pendleton Act required appointees to public office to take a competitive examination, and outlawed the requirement that federal workers contribute to election campaigns. 25. With the passage of the Pendleton Act, politicians now sought money from big corporations. 26. The 1884 election contest between James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was noted for its personal attacks on the two candidates. 27. U.S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield, and Chester Arthur were all Republicans. Grover Cleveland was a Democrat. Cleveland and Wilson would be the only Democrats elected between 1860 and...