1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Compared
A. Anatomy: the science of body structures and the relationships among structures
B. Physiology: the study of body functions – how the body parts work
1.2 Anatomy and Physiology Integrated
A. Anatomy and physiology initially may appear to be different sciences, but further reflection reveals that these two sciences are integrated, because form (anatomy) and function (physiology) are interrelated.
B. Anatomists cannot gain a full appreciation of anatomic form without also understanding a structure’s function.
C. Physiologists cannot fully appreciate body functions without learning the form of the structures involved.
1.3 The Body’s Levels of Organization
A. Characteristics that Describe Living Things
1. Organization - the complex hierarchical structuring of the body. 2. Metabolism - the sum of all chemical reactions in the body. Metabolism is subsumed into two interrelated processes, anabolism and catabolism.
a. Anabolism - biochemical joining of small molecules to make larger ones.
b. Catabolism - biochemical break down of large molecules into smaller ones. 3. Growth - the enlargement in the size of an organism. 4. Development (differentiation) – the process whereby cells specialized for specific functioning 5. Responsiveness - the ability to sense and react to stimuli. 6. Regulation - the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in the face of a changing external environment. 7. Reproduction is a process that produces new cells for growth, maintenance and repair.
B. The View from Simplest to Most Complex
1. chemical level - the simplest level involving atoms and molecules.
Atoms are the smallest intact chemical units and
molecules are combinations of atoms.
2. cellular level - consists of cells - the smallest living structures and the basic units of structure and function. 3. tissue level - comprised of groups of similar cells that collectively form common functions.
4. organ level – organs, composed of two or more tissue types, that perform specific, complex functions.
5. organ system level - contains organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function. 6. The organism - the highest level human structural organization, comprised of all of the organ systems working in an integrated functional manner.
C. Introduction to Organ Systems
1. Integumentary System
Major structures: skin and associated glands, hair, nails
Functions: provides protection; regulates body temperature; site of cutaneous receptors; synthesizes vitamin D; prevents water loss
2. Skeletal System
Major structures: bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons
Functions: provides support and protection; site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production); provides sites for muscle attachments
3. Muscular System
Major structures: skeletal muscles
Functions: produces body movement; generates heat when muscles contract
4. Nervous System
Major structures: brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors
Functions: controls body movements by initiating responses to muscles; processes and responds to sensory stimuli; responsible for consciousness,...