A.P. World - Stearns 5th Edition; Chapter 1: from Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

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Chapter 1: From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

• Phoenicians: A smaller regional culture, which devised a greatly simplified alphabet with 22 letters around 1,300 BCE; this in turn was the ancestor of the Greek and Latin alphabets. Seafaring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean. • Harrappa/Mohenjo Darjo: The largest city to develop along the Indus River. • Hieroglyphs: The form of writing developed in ancient Egypt; more pictorial than Mesopotamian cuneiform. • Jericho: Early walled urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern Israel; occupied West Bank near Jordan River. • Chiefdom: Widely diffused patterns of social organization in the Americas; featured chieftains who ruled from central towns over a large territory including smaller towns or villages that paid tribute; predominant town often featured temples and priest class. • Anasazi: "The Ancient Ones"; culture located in southwestern United States; flourished from 200 to 1,200 CE; featured large multistory adobe and stone buildings built in protected canyons or cliffs. • City-state: An independent, self-governing city; a form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilizations; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by an urban-based king. • Horizon: Archeological term for a period when a broad central authority seems to have integrated a widely dispersed region. • Neolithic Age – The New Stone Age: period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished. • Polis: City-state form of government; typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 BCE. • Matrilineal: Family descent and inheritance traced through the female line. • Chav'n culture: Appeared in highlands of Andes between 1,800 and 1,200 BCE; typified by ceremonial centers with large stone buildings; greatest...
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