Chapter 11 Study Guide
1. What was de Tocqueville’s observation about the way democracy played itself out in America? He claimed that the most able men were rarely placed in the positions they deserved—those at the head of affairs. He also said ordinary citizens ignored important issues of public policy, refused to elect their intellectual superiors to office, and willingly assented to the politicians and leaders that lied to gain people’s support.
2. What is the difference between republicanism and democracy? Republicanism: rule by property-owning men of talents and virtue. By 1820s and ‘30s, Democracy: The majority should govern was a fundamental maxim in all free gov.’s. United ordinary Americans in election fever and party organizations, they held together a social order increasingly fragmented by the economic revolution. Promoted political parties that could debate political policies.
3. Who formed the traditional wealthy notables in America? Northern landlords, slave-owning planters, and seaport merchants.
4. What challenges to the traditional political order arose in the Midwest? Social egalitarianism became important to the masses as small farmers and ambitious laborers in the Midwest became sick of being underrepresented and seemingly thought of as servants.
5. What were some of the democratic trends in the North? (1810-ish) Condemnation of property qualifications led to democratic change allowing broad franchise concerning property owning. Between 1818 and 1821, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and NY all wrote new constitutions that reapportioned legislative districts on the basis of popilation and made local governments more democratic by mandating the election—rather than the appointment—of judges and justices of the peace.
6. Summarize the make up and work of the new political “machines” They were a coherent legislative program. As the push for democracy developed, political parties became inherent, and by the 1820s were highly developed and disciplined organizations managed by pro politicians—often mid-class lawyers and journalists. Like a well-designed textile loom, they were machines that wove the diverse interests of social and economic groups into elaborate tapestry.
7. Who was Martin Van Buren and what did he do?
Chief architect of the emerging system of party government. Between 1817 and 1821 he created the first statewide political machine—the Albany Regency. A decade later he organized the first nationwide political party: Jacksonian Democrats. Disagreed with the republican principle that political factions were dangerous to the common wealth and argued the opposite: “ All men of sense know that political parties are inseparable from free government” because they check the gov.’s ability to use/misuse power. Most importantly, he created the idea of using media (the Albany Argus) to help get people to vote and Patronage: Van Buren and his followers had greater interest in the gov. than notables. He insisted that state legislators follow the dictates of a party meeting, or caucus.
8. Who was Henry Clay and what was his American System?
A presidential candidate in the election of 1824 running against Jackson. His American system was an integrated program of national economic development that relied on the 2nd Bank of the US to regulate state banks and advocated the set of tariff revenues to build roads and canals.
9. What was Andrew Jackson’s appeal?
He was a war hero from the War of 1812, and had a wave of nationalistic pride that flowed towards him. He also had strong tied to influential families through marriage and his career as an attorney and slave-owning cotton planter. He also had risen from average to hero, which fit the democratic ideal of America, and his image as a “plain solid republican” attracted voters in all regions.
10. What was the “corrupt bargain”?
Henry Clay had assembled a coalition...