A&P 1 Study Guide

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Chapter 1

• Anatomy & Physiology
• Gross anatomy – visible to naked eye
• Microscopic
• Developmental
• Pathological anatomy
• Radiographic anatomy
• Molecular biology
• Physiology
• Focuses on cellular or molecular level
• Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function • A&P are inseparable
• Function reflects structure
• Specific form
• Levels of organization
1. Chemical level
2. cellular level
3. tissue level
4. organ level
5. organ system
6. organismal level

• Necessary Life functions
o Maintaining boundaries
o Movement
o Responsiveness
o Digestion
o Metabolism
o Excretion
o Reproduction
o Growth
• Survival Needs
o Nutrients
o O2
o H20
o Normal body temp
o Atmospheric pressure
• Homeostasis
o Maintain stable internal environment
o Internal environment is dynamic state of equilibrium o May allow destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over o 3 components of control mechanisms:
▪ stimulus
▪ receptor
▪ input (afferent pathway)
▪ control center
▪ (efferent pathway) output
▪ response
o Negative feedback
▪ Reduces or shuts off original stimulus
o Positive feedback
▪ Output enhances or exaggerates original stimulus ▪ Variable changes in same direction
o Anatomical Position
▪ Body erect
▪ Feet slightly apart
▪ Palms facing forward
▪ Thumbs away from body
o Directional
▪ Where body structure is in relation to another o Regional terms
▪ Designate specific areas within body divisions o Planes
▪ Flat surface along which body or structure is cut for anatomical study • Sagittal- vertical plane divides body into right and left parts • Frontal – vertical plane divides body into anterior and posterior parts • Transverse- divides body into superior and inferior • Oblique- diagonal cut

o Cavities
▪ Dorsal cavity- nervous system
• Cranial
• Vertebral
▪ Ventral cavity- internal organs
• Thoracic
o Pleural cavity
o Mediastinum
▪ pericardial
• Abdominopelvic
o Abdominal cavity
o Pelvic
o Serosa (serus) membrane- thin, double-layered membrane to prevent friction ▪ Parietal serosae- lines internal body walls, named for body cavity it lines ▪ Visceral serosa- covers internal organs, named for organ it protects o 9 abdominopelvic regions

▪ Epigastric
▪ Umbilical
▪ Hypogastric
▪ Right and left iliac (inguinal)
▪ Right and left lumbar
▪ Right and left hypochondriac

Chapter 2
• all living things are composed of matter and require energy to function • Matter- anything that has mass and takes up space
o Solid
o Liquid
o Gas
• Energy- the capacity to do work
o Kinetic
o Potential
• Forms of energy
o Chemical
o Electrical
o Mechanical
o Radiant
o **Energy is easily converted from one from to another** • All matter is composed of elements
o Elements- cannot be broken down into...
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