A Case of X-linked Agammaglobulinemia
1. What are the differences between non-specific and specific (immunity) body defense? Non-specific defenses attack any foreign invaders by physical and chemical barriers first and then internally. Specific defenses are our immune system and the immune response that forgets specific invaders of the body that manage to get by the non-specific defenses. 2. In what tissue do B- and T- lymphocytes originate and what are the two steps involved in lymphocyte “maturation”? The precursors of both types of cells are produced in the bone marrow. While the B cells mature in the bone marrow, the precursor to the T cells leaves the bone marrow and matures in the thymus which is the reason that they are called "T cells" for thymus-derived cells. 3. Describe the two “arms” of immunity.
The two major arms of innate immunity are inflammation and phagocytes. Inflammation is the warning system that alerts the rest of the immune system that something is wrong, while phagocytes are the infantry of our immune system whose job is to clean out whatever is causing the infection. 4. Define the term antigen and state which class of organic molecules make the best antigens, and why? An antigen is a substance or molecule that, when it is introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system, which will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader. 5. What are the five classes of antibody?
IgG (Immunoglobulin G; 4 subclasses, IgG1-4), IgM (Immunoglobulin M), IgA (Immunoglobulin A; 2 subclasses, IgA1-2), IgD: (Immunoglobulin D), IgE (Immunoglobulin E) 6. What are the means by which antibody molecules exert a protective effect? 7. What are the basic differences between active and passive immunity? Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the...
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