Topics: Philippines, Mindanao, Luzon Pages: 5 (1706 words) Published: July 9, 2013
1.) Boundaries of the Philippines.
Location, Size and Boundaries
Location: The Philippines comprises an archipelago of some 7,107 islands located off Southeast Asia, between the South China Sea on the west and the Philippine Sea on the east.  The major islands are Luzon in the north, the Visayan Islands in the middle, and Mindanao in the south. 

Size: The total area is about 300,000 square kilometers, including about 298,000 square kilometers of land and about 2,000 square kilometers of water. The Philippines stretches about 1,850 kilometers from Y’Ami Island in the north to Sibutu Island  in the south and is about 1,000 kilometers at its widest point  east to west. The bulk of the population lives on 11 of the  7,107 islands. 

Land Boundaries: The Philippines has no land boundaries. Nearby neighbors are Taiwan to the north, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. 

Disputed Territory: The Philippines, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Vietnam hold conflicting claims to portions of the South China Sea and the Spratly Islands, which are called the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands in the Philippines. The Philippines also disputes Malaysia’s claim to the state of Sabah. 

Length of Coastline: Estimates of the total length of the coastline range from 17,500 kilometers (official Philippine figure) to 36,289 kilometers (U.S. figure). 

Maritime Claims: The Philippines claims a territorial sea of up to 100 nautical miles from the nearest coastline, an area that includes the entire Sulu Sea and the northern part of the Celebes Sea. A presidential decree in 1978 announced additional baselines, which in effect extended the territorial sea to claim an area up to 285 nautical miles in breadth in the South China Sea west of Palawan Island. This area encompasses the Spratly Islands. The Philippines also claims its continental shelf to the depth of exploitation and an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles from its baselines. 

Topography: The Philippines consists of volcanic islands, including active volcanoes, with mostly mountainous interiors surrounded by flat lowlands and alluvial plains of varying widths along the coasts. The elevation ranges from sea level to the highest point of Mount Apo on Mindanao Island, at 2,954 meters above sea level. 

Principal Rivers: The longest river is the Cagayan (Río Grande de Cagayan) on Luzon, about 350 kilometers in length. Other principal rivers on Luzon include the Abra, Bicol, Chico, and Pampanga. The Pasig River is only about 25 kilometers in length but serves as the main waterway, flowing between Laguna de Bay, the largest freshwater lake in the Philippines, through metropolitan Manila to Manila Bay. Principal rivers on Mindanao include the Mindanao River (known as the Pulangi River in its upper reaches), and the Agusan. The St. Paul River on Palawan is an eight-kilometer-long underground river.

2.) How Philippines have been conquered?
Before the so-called invaders of Philippines came here, we proudly say that we are civilized then and stood up by ourselves even without the help of others. Fossils, bones and jars were found from the different parts of the country as a sign of life many years ago. The oldest of which was retrieved in a cave named Kuweba ng Tabon, Palawan. It was said that they lived 22,000 years ago. It stated in the history of the Philippines that the first group of men who came here was the Negritos. They are those who have dark complexion, small, and has curly hair. Their other names were Aetas, Itas, Baluga and many more. It was believed that they lived in caves and in the mountains. After the Negritos were the Indones. They are those who have a white complexion, tall, and tough bodies. To compare the two, the Indones are smart looking people. The last group was the Malays. They were the one having the right complexion, height and characteristics. They were the one who mostly dominated...
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