Organic compounds – are compounds that contain carbon and were originally made by living things e.g. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Inorganic compounds – are compounds do not contain carbon as a main element
| Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
| Used in the structure, storage, movement and transport of cells for growth and repair.
| Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
| Stores energy but is more difficult to release than carbohydrates. It breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol. Used as stores of energy
| Composed of a complex polymer
| Provided support for stems and leaves of cells to prevent them from collapsing
| Consists of glucose units joined together
| Made by plants to store excess sugar
| Comes from digesting the sugar and starch in carbohydrates.
| Provides energy to the cell
| Test Reagent
| Negative result
| Positive result
| Benedict’s solution
| Pale blue or no colour change
| Yellow or orange
| Iodine solution
| Yellow brown or no colour change
| Dark blue or black
| Blue or no colour change
| Toluidine blue
| Blue or green or no colour change
| Pale blue
| Chloride ions
| Silver nitrate
| No precipitate
| White precipitate
Protein can be identified by Biuret reagent, and if starch is present iodine solution will turn from yellow/brown to black/dark blue
If Benedict’s solution turns from blue to yellow, this proves that glucose is present.
Light microscopes: an instrument that uses light and lenses to magnify very small specimens Electron microscopes: an instrument that uses electron beams to enlarge images more than 200 times Organelle: specialised part of the cell
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid contains hereditary information that can be passed on through reproduction Cytoplasm: gel material that makes up a living cell, not including the nucleus Cellulose: inorganic complex carbohydrate
Chlorophyll: green pigment used in photosynthesis
Photosynthesis: the process of how plants make glucose and the by product oxygen from the reaction water and carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. Stroma: the fluid in the chloroplast holding the grana and starch Granum: a stack of membranes that photosynthesis in the chloroplasts Electron micrographs: pictures that have been taken by an electron microscope Cellular respiration: the process of creating energy using glucose and oxygen in mitochondria Crista: the folding of the inner membrane in a mitochondrion which increases the surface area for reactions Matrix: the fluid in the mitochondria that contains enzymes for respiration Vesicle: small fluid filled sacs
Chromatin: material that makes up nucleus and DNA which holds hereditary information Pores: holes
Protein: macro molecule made of aminoacids used for structure and function Lipids: are fats, they are high in energy
Identify cell organelles seen with current light and electron microscopes Organelles and Structures that can be seen with light microscopes Organelle or Structure
| Large circular membrane bound organelle in the cytoplasm that contains DNA.
| Controls all cell activity.
| Cell Membrane
| Semi permeable structure made of phospholipids that surrounds the contents of the cell.
| Control what substances enter and leave the cell.
| Membrane bound sac of dissolved ions in water.
| Stores water and ions and provides support stopping it from becoming flaccid.
| Double membrane bound green organelle containing chlorophyll.
| Photosynthesis which involves the creation of glucose using sunlight.
| Cell Wall
| Rigid membrane of cellulose that surrounds a plant cell.
| Provides support and structure.
Organelles and Structures that can be seen with...
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