Ww1 - Gallipoli Study Notes

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History Summary Notes – Semester 2, 2012
Australia to 1914
* How people lived at the turn of the C20th
* Housing
* Lower Class Housing
* Unsanitary, overcrowded, dangerous (poorly built, cheap materials) * Many didn’t have sewerages or standard water supplies * Bad ventilation and poor lighting

* Upper Class Housing
* Lived in the eastern suburbs/north shore
* Employed maids and servants
* Houses were old, not built securely, no heat, no electricity, no garages to put cars in.

* The Role of women
* Around federation women had very few rights
* Women who stepped outside the stereotypes were unaccepted and rejected from society. * Employment was tough - were expected to be house mothers * In the late 19th century universities started excepting women – opening jobs: teaching, nursing, science, architecture. * Unequal pay (men and women)

* World war 1 = female jobs in manufacturing
* Upper class women DID NOT WORK
* The majority of women in 1990’s = Domestic servants, nurses and teachers

* School and Education
* Working Class Education
* The government started educating working class to reduce crime * School was compulsory (attend from the age of 6 &16) * Upper Class Housing
* Good extensive education
* Went to private ‘finishing schools’ or home schooled – personal tutors

* Working Life
* Working Class
* Many hours, bad conditions and little pay
* Women = Factories, carers/nurses, mining
* Men = Bakers/butchers, at banks, politics, miners * Upper Class
* Earned more money and did less hours than working class * Often inherited money from relatives
* Food
* Food Trade
* Food = the biggest commercial industry
* Average Australian Diets
* Very basic
* Mainly bread, cauliflower, big pieces of meat, custard and potatoes

* Public Health and Medicine
* Medical care was expensive
* One in 10 children didn’t live for more than a year
* Pneumonia, tuberculosis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, polio -=common diseases

* Communication
* Letters
* Most popular form of communication
* Telegrams
* Was the fastest way of communicating a message
* First telegram = 1901
* Phones
* First came out in 1876
* Not popular and very rare
* Radio
* Introduced in 1905
* Wireless communication – big part of WW1

* Leisure and Entertainment
* Working Class
* Very little time for leisure – working
* Sporting events/live theatre
* Upper Class
* Lots of leisure time
* Travel/family outings/visiting friends/live entertainment * Family picnics were popular

* Dress and Fashion
* Working Class Fashion
* Less elaborate
* No suits
* Mothers made family clothes
* Men = cloth caps (show their social class)
* Upper Class Fashion
* Clothes tailor made
* Men = trousers, waistcoat, top hat/bowler hat
* Women = Slim waist line, uncomfortable and very elaborate underwear and long dresses

* Transport
* Popular Types of transportation
* Buses, trains, bikes, cars and horses
* Planes = popular after WW1

* Federation – the reasons and process
* What is the Australian Federation
* Occurred on January 1st, 1901
* Combined the six self-governed colonies of Australia into one central government for the entire nation.

* Reasons for/against Federation
* For
* Nationalism
* Australia was coming to identify with their national land * A sense of nationalism/belonging had begun
* Transport and communication
* Pre-federation transport and communication between colonies had been difficult * Federation had the power to improve T & C
* Economic and Trade Advantages
* Nation banking system and unified economic policy would...
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