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WORLD WAR I Lecture Notes

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WORLD WAR I Lecture Notes

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World War I
3.31.2014

End of New Imperialism
Scramble of Africa complete: 1900s
Civilizing mission questioned
Redrawn borders lead to conflicts
Fashoda Crisis
Boer War

World War I
Challenges New Imperialism
WWI: 1914-1918
Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria
Entente: Britain, France, Russia
Later: Japan, US

Outbreak
Assassination: Archduke Ferdinand, 6/28/1914
August, 1914: War Declarations
Trench War fought in Europe
War of attraction
Entente wins but at great cost

WWI Results
37.5 million killed, injured,disappeared
8 million dead from combat
US casualties
Shift in world power
Europe irreparably weakened
US and Japan: main beneficiaries

More Results
3 Eurasian land empires destroyed
Ottoman, Russian, Austria-Hungarian
Russian empire reconstructed as USSR
Germany loses colonies to Great Britain and France

Still More Results
Beginnings of decolonization
Why?
WWI weakens Europe
Rise of:
Democracy, Nationalism, Marxism

WWI's Paradox
British and French Empires are bigger than ever
Yet, empire under threat
Euro hold colonies slips
Germany owes $33 billion Entente
British and French struggling under war debt

Imperial War
Euro war with non-Euro participants
Japan, USA, China, Ottomans, Liberia
Fighting outside Euro
Caucasians, Far East/ Pacific, Africa, Mid East
“Total War” affects:
Colonial and Civilian populations

Colonial Soldiers
Many non-Euros fight
Experience discrimination
“Fighting for (whose) freedom?”

Civilian Populations
Genocide and Nationalism
Armenians in Ottoman Empire
1915

Empire Questioned
Anti-Imperial rhetoric grows during/ after WWI
Why?
Idealistic: View of War's pupose
Goals: Democracy and national self-discrimination
League of Nations founded after WWI

Wilson's “14 points”
Proposed Jan, 1918
Calls for
“impartial adjustment of all colonies”
“equal weight” for concerns of population
Issue of international control

Marxist Critique
Call...