World Religions Chart

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Characteristic| Judaism|
Beginning Time Period| Around 1900-1300 BCE.|
Founder| Judaism is believed to descend from patriarchs Abraham, Moses, Isaac and Jacob. It was found in Israel. | Story of religion’s creation| * There was early journey or exodus from Mesopotamia to Palestine under the guidance of Abraham. * People later escaped to Egypt, where they were first imprisoned and then miraculously fled to rejoin their family in Palestine. * Moses became a leader to guide the Jews out of imprisonment and back to the promised land that had been taken over by Canaanites * At Mount Sinai, he climbed to the top of the mountain to meet with God, who initiated a covenant with the Jewish people that consisted of the Ten Commandments. * In 1000 B.C.E., the Jews created a small state, which later split into a northern state called Israel and a southern state called Judah. * In 586 B.C.E., the state of Judah was under Babylonian control, and its elite class was sent off to exile. In Babylon, these people now Jews recollected their cultural identity * This recollecting of cultural identity and religious tradition created Judaism.| Religious Text(s)| * The Hebrew Bible, known the Tenach, is the key text in Judaism. The Tenach is divided into three parts: Torah, Nevi'im, and Ketuvim. * The Torah is divided into five books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. It the text that is studied weekly by Jews. * The Nevi'im (Prophets) initiates after the death of Moses, from the start of the leadership of Yehoshusa, disciple of Moses, and is divided into two parts: Nevi'im Rishonim and Nevi'im Aharonim.  * The Ketuvim (Writings) is consists of three groups: Group 1: The Three Poetic Books, Group II: The Five Scrolls, and Group III: Other Historical Books. * Mishnah, which is mostly simple laws with many arguments * The Talmud is a deep explanation of the Mishnah that will explain it in depth and adds understanding with sources from the Hebrew Bible. * The Ten Commandments is the basic ethical code that Jews follow and was retrieved from God by Moses.| Basic Precepts| * They are the Chosen people of God, and must follow their Covenant with Him. * They are a unique ethnicity and are early monotheists. * Man dies only once, and then come is judgd based on his life as a moral. Those that are redeemed and follow Jesus and obey him live in Heaven, while those that rejected God and disobeyed him suffer for eternity in Hell. * They believe in the Trinity: Three person in One Godhead, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. * Jesus is the lord and savior. * They believe that God created man. If man sinned and fell under its curse, God converts sinful man through the shed blood of Jesus Christ and takes away his sins. Those that he converts, he will regenerate and have them "born-again". * God is the Omnipotent, Omniscient, Omnipresent, Holy, Just, Loving Creator of the Universe. * Ten Commandments-Basic ethical code that Jews follow * Don’t kill * Don’t commit adultery * Don’t steal * Don’t bear false witness * Don’t use God's name in vain * Don’t worship any likeness of God * Don’t covet one's neighbor's possessions or wife * Invoked Jews to worship him as the sole god * Honor one's father and mother * Keep the Sabbath as a day of rest once a week.| Relevant Vocabulary| * Chanukah or Hanukkah: The Feast of Dedication celebrating the Maccabean victory in 167 B.C.E. * Diaspora: The dispersion of the Jews after the Babylonian Captivity or refers to Jews who do not live in Israel. * Gemarah: The interpretation of the Mishnah. * Midrash: A commentary of the Hebrew scriptures, especially the Torah. * Mishnah: Oral law in general; to be distinguished from Scripture. * Passover or Pesach: The annual feast commemorating the deliverance of the firstborn in Egypt when the angel of death took all those who did not have blood on the...
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