World History Study Guide 1st Semester

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Chapter 1: The Peopling of the World

Section 1: Human Origins in Africa
Artifacts - human-made objects such as tools and jewelry
Artifacts help hint to the culture of prehistoric people
Culture - a people's unique way of life
Archaeologists vs. Paleontologists vs. Anthropologists
Archaeologists study the life of early people
Paleontologists study fossils
Anthropologists study artifacts found at archaeological digs Hominids - human-like creatures that walk upright
Lucy is the oldest hominid found to date (in 1974) at 3.5 million years old Paleolithic Age - or the Old Stone Age lasted from 2.5 million to 8,000 BC During this time hominids mastered fire, developed tools and incented language Took Place during the Ice Age which ended 10,000 years ago

Neolithic Age - or the New Stone Age lasted from 8,000 to 3,000 BC Technology - ways knowledge, tools, and inventions are used to meet needs Homo erectus were the first to use fire and possibly the first to use language Homo Sapiens - modern humans; "wise men" in Latin

Cro-Magnon skeletal remains are identical to those of modern humans Cro-Magnons and Homo Sapiens did not coexist in peace
In 2002 scientists discovered Chad, a 6 or 7 million year old hominid Scientists believe that  Chad came from when Humans split from appear

Section 2: Humans Try to Control Nature
Nomads - highly mobile people who moved from place to place foraging, or searching for new sources of food Hunter-Gatherer - a member of a nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods The early humans created hundreds of tools to help survive

This is known as the Technological Revolution
Neolithic Revolution - or the Agricultural Revolution was the beginnings of farming Slash-and-Burn Farming - a farming method by which people clear fields by cutting and burning trees and grasses of which fertilize the soil Domestication  -  or taming of animals

This helped farmers to keep a constant source of meat
The foothills of the Zagros mountains in northeastern Iraq were the birth place of agriculture 9,000 years ago there was an agriculture in that location
In a few thousand years fertile river valleys turned to farming Around the African Nile, the Yellow River and Chang Jiang River in China and in Mexico, Central America and Peru Catal Huyuk was a great example of the benefits of settled life  

Chapter 2: Early River Valley Civilizations

Section 1: City-States in Mesopotamia
Fertile Crescent - an arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea This region provided some of the best farming in the area
Mesopotamia - a land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Fertile Crescent became known as Mesopotamia; Greek for the land between the rivers The Tigris and the Euphrates (which would flood usually once a year) The first people to settle Mesopotamia arrived before 4,500 BC Around 3,300 BC, the Sumerians arrived

To get resources, they traded what they had. To control the flooding, they dug irrigation ditches. To defend themselves, they built mud walls To get everything done leaders emerged to plan and supervise the projects These leaders were the beginning of organized government— eventually this became civilization City-State - a city and the surrounding area functioning as an independent political unit For Example: Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Umma and Ur (the center of all of the Sumerian cities) Dynasty - a series of rulers from a single family

By 2,500 Many Sumerian cities were ruled by dynasties
Cultural Diffusion - the process in which a new idea or product spreads from one culture to another This is usually caused by trade
Polytheism - the belief in more than one god
The Sumerians believed in life after death but their life wasn't a paradise The Epic of Gilgamesh a Mesopotamian myth was one of the first written works Social order: kings, landholders, and priests (upper), wealthy merchants...
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