World History Patters of Interaciton Chapter 14 Section 1

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  • Topic: Kingdom of Jerusalem, Crusades, Saladin
  • Pages : 3 (578 words )
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  • Published : December 11, 2012
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* Spiritual Revival
* Starting in the 900s, monasteries help bring about a spiritual revival * Reformers help restore and expand Church power
* Some Church officials marry even though the Church objects * Some officials practice simony—selling religious offices * Kings use lay investiture to appoint bishops
* Reformers believe only the Church should appoint bishops Reform and Church Organization
* Starting in the 1100s, popes reorganize the Church like a kingdom * Pope’s advisors make Church laws; diplomats travel throughout Europe * Church collects tithes; uses money to care for sick or poor New Religious orders

* Dominican and Franciscan orders form
* Friars in these orders vow poverty; travel and preach to the poor * Some new orders for women are founded
Early Cathedrals
* Between 800-1100, churches are built in Romanesque style * Style includes thick walls and pillars, small windows, round arches

A New Style of Church Architecture
* Gothic style evolves around 1100; term from Germanic tribe, Goths * Gothic style has large, tall windows for more light; pointed arches * Churches have stained glass windows, many sculptures

* About 500 Gothic churches are built from 1170 to 1270

Goals of the Crusades
* Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christianity * Kings use Crusades to send away knights who cause trouble * Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting (although historian Rodney Stark in God’s Battalions: The Case for the Crusades disagrees with that theory because the first three crusades were led by the heads of the royal families of Europe). * Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through trade. First Crusade: 1096-1099

* Pope promises Crusaders who die a place in heaven
* First Crusade: three armies gather at Constantinople in 1097 * Crusaders capture Jerusalem in 1099
* Captured lands along coast divided...
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