World History Lecture Notes

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9/19/12
Farming and Emergence of Complex Societies
* Farming and complex societies are the result of change
* One of major changes is reflected in this frieze on a wall in Mesopotamia -reflects domestication of animals and plants – was a monumental change – resulted in a new way of living we know as farming – included pastoralism * Development of farming communities – a major change – started to be accompanied by a wall structure * Between about 12,000 and 1,000 BCE – Appeared independently * Prior to farming, population size in any one area was limited by the availability of wild game, grain, berries, seeds, and nuts. * Farming and the large, relatively dependable crops provides allowed for population intensification * Started to be able to produce surplus food for once – all of society doesn’t have to grow food or tend animals. They can take on other tasks and specialize in different things – lead to priests, nobles, kings, queens, etc. – known as “job specialization” * Domestication of Plants and animals > Farming > Population intensification, surplus food, specialization > Complex society known as civilization. ________________________________________________________________________ What is Jerrod Diamond’s thesis?

* Studies birds
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“Why do you white men have so much cargo and we New Guineans have so little?” * -------------------------------------------------
They weren’t less talented then other farmers. Their crops can’t be stored, low in protein, harder to plant (one by one.) * -------------------------------------------------
Type of farming is crucial to being productive
* -------------------------------------------------
Americans have advantage for centuries because we grow crops more nutritious * -------------------------------------------------
Used domesticated animals for milk, fur for clothes, and meat. * -------------------------------------------------
Pigs are called secondary
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14 domesticated animals over 100 lbs

The spread of the Neolithic Revolution
* Climate too dry
* Move from fertile crescent
* Most villages were abandoned in fertile crescent
* People over exploited their resources]depleted environment of resources * Crop growing of fertile crescent spread east

I. Mesopotamia “Land Between the Two Rivers” (p. 14-23) a. Location and place
i. Indo-European Migrations:
1. 4m
2. The Middle East
ii. Settled Agriculture in an Unstable Landscape
3. Mesopotamia > alluvial plain > Tigris and Euphrates Rivers a. Difficult environment for agriculture
i. Little rainfall
ii. Rivers flood at the wrong time for grain agriculture iii. Rivers change course unpredictably
4. Mesopotamia > warm climate and good soil
b. 4000 B.C.E. – farmers use cattle-pulled plows and planter for barley 5. The earliest creators of Mesopotamian culture > Sumerians c. As early as 5000 B.C.E.

d. 2000 B.C.E. – the Sumerians supplanted by Semitic-speaking peoples e. Preserved man elements of Sumerian culture i. E-Economy
ii. M-Military
iii. P-Political
iv. I-Intelligence
v. R-Religious
vi. E-Environments
vii. S-Social
f. “The Cradle of Civilization”
iv. Cities
v. Established agriculture
vi. Specialized jobs
b. Cities, kings, and trade – Political
iii. Early Mesopotamian society > Villages and cities > Interdependent...
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