World Cornell Notes Classical Civilizations in Indializatio

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Jacob Yi
Period 6
Cornell Notes- Chapter 3 Classical Civilization: India
* Introduction
* India vs. China
* China’s emphasis- Politics and philosophical values * India’s emphasis- Religion and social structure * India’s political culture was less cohesive and central * Agricultural societies

* Most were peasant farmers, clustering villagers, strong male favor women were possessions, * Produced important cities and trade.
* The Framework for Indian History: Geography and a Formative Period * Close to other nations
* Open to influences from Middle East and Mediterranean * Brought new artistic styles and political concepts * Alexander the Great
* Made Indian contacts with Hellenistic culture * Middle East continued influences after classical age * Topography
* Shaped a number of vital features in its civilization * Separation in Terrain
* Himalayas
* Indians found passes through mountains (NW) linked with middle east and china * Divisions in India made political unity difficult * The Indus and Ganges rivers
* Important for agriculture
* Herding
* In the mountains
* Separate Region’s contribution
* Economic diversity
* Racial and language differences
* Monsoon
* Crucial for farming
* Vary from year to year
* Too little or too late and cause famine.
* Abundance one year starvation next
* Good weather, 2 harvest of crops
* Formative Period- Vedic and Epic Ages
* Aryan (indo-European)
* Vedic age 1500-1000 BCE, agriculture extend from Indus river valley to more fertile Ganges Valley * Indian history passed from epics orally and later written in Sanskrit, first language in India * Books called Vedas

* Rig-Veda first epic
* Books developed in epic age 1000-600 BCE
* Mahabharata, greatest epic poem
* Ramayana
* Deal with real and mythical battles
* Reflect on settled agricultural society and better organized political units than Rig-Veda * Upanishads, epic poem with mystical religious * Aryan
* Encouraged tight levels of village organization in society and politics * Families are patriarchal
* Indian social classes in Vedic and epic ages
* Warrior/governing- Kshatriyas
* Priests
* Traders and Farmers
* Common laborers
* Untouchables
* Social classes became hereditary and marring across classes were forbidden * Religion from Greek or Scandinavian mythology
* Indra god of thunder and strength, gods presided over fire sun death etc * Human sacrifices to gods
* Certain animals were sacred
* More elaborate
* End of Epic age, Gautama Buddha made Buddhism * Patterns in Classical India-End of 600 BCE Formative Phase * 16 major states
* Monarchs or republics dominated by priests and warriors * Warfare not uncommon
* Mauryan Dynasty
* A young soldier, Chandragupta Maurya seized power along Ganges River * Later became a religious ascetic and died peacefully * First rulers to unify much of India
* Maintained large Armies
* Substantial bureaucracy, sponsoring a postal service * Autocratic government
* Rely on ruler’s personal and military power
* Ashoka (269-232 BCE) grandson
* Served governor of 2 provinces
* Enjoyed lavish lifestyle,...
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