World Civilization Exam

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PART I: TERM IDENTIFICATION (2 points each). Follow the instructions listed below. Remember that to earn full credit for each term, you must include as much of the following as possible: •When was this term important?

Where/what civilization was it important?
Why is it important?

A.Define four of the following:

1. Pax Romana- When: 31 BC- 180 AD
Where/what civilization: Roman Empire
Why: stands for “Roman Peace” which proceeded from Augustus’ achievements for six generations. The region from Bristol to Belgrade was unified one center of authority. The arts, literature and trade flourished in this era.

2. Caligula- When: - 37 AD- 41 AD
Where/what civilization: Roman Empire
Why: he is one of the notorious Roman Emperors who was the son of a leading general. Emperor Tiberius saw father as a threat; Caligula becomes an orphan and lives in Tiberius’ household. He was thought to be mentally ill probably due to oppression and isolation as a child, incise with sister, life threatened many times. After becoming emperor he was seen as mentally ill due to signs such as torturing people (sleep with Senator’s wives and tell them about it), he wanted to make his horse to be a council and built a bridge to temple so it’s more convenient for him to talk to Jupiter; enemies were concerned for his stability.

3. Nero- When: 54 AD- 68 AD
Where/what civilization: Roman Empire
Why: He was a mentally unbalanced emperor who was interested in being an emperor but not in governing. Government under him became corrupt, he used funds inappropriately and loved focusing in art. He thought himself as a great writer and athlete. In 64 A.D. there was a great fire in Rome destroying most of it; used Christians as scapegoat and Christians started getting persecuted. He was removed from power in 68 A.D.

4. Constantine the Great
5. St. Paul of Tarsus
6. Bishops
7. Holy Eucharist- When: since 150 A.D.
Where/what civilization: Roman Empire
Why: this is a ritual of the Christian faith after completely breaking from Judaism. This is “Thanksgiving” or the re-enactment of the Last Supper.

B.Define six of the following:

1.Kaaba
2.Mecca
3. Medina- When: 622 A.D. (when Mohammad flees there for refuge from Mecca) Where/what civilization: Islamic Civilization
Why: This city was important because, Mohammad fled from Mecca to avoid being killed and was received by welcoming arms by the city of Medina. The city of Medina also willingly converted to the religion of Islam. Moreover, Mohammad became the political and religious leader of Medina which allowed him to preach and convert people to Islam.

4. Hijira (Hegira)-When: 622 A.D.
Where/what civilization: Islamic Civilization
Why: This was important because this is the flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina to save his own life. Mohammad from this flight was received by welcoming hands by the city of Medina. Medina willingly converted to Islam and Mohammad became it’s political and religious leader. Thus, allowing Mohammad to preach and convert others to the religion of Islam.

5. Caliph
6. People of the Book
7. Abu Bakr- When: 632 A.D. -634 A.D.
Where/what civilization: Islamic Civilization
Why: He was Mohammad’s closest friend and the first to convert to the new religion of Islam. He wanted to become Mohammad’s successor after he died; he was successful in becoming the first Caliph (won over Mohammad’s cousin and son-in-law: Ali).

8. Ali
9. Omar- When: 634 A.D. to 644 A.D.
Where/what civilization: Islamic Civilization
Why: He succeeded Abu Bakr. He expanded the Islamic Empire to Egypt, Palestine and Persia. He also, takes over Jerusalem and he did not pillage Jerusalem because the Bishop of Jerusalem told Omar he’ll surrender if Omar did not harm the...
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