World at Risk a Level Geography

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Renewable Energy Projects
Cut down use of fossil fuels
Small scale projects – solar panel, turbines
Bio fuels
More expensive than fossil fuels

Tree Planting
Acts as carbon sink
Benefits not felt for at least 10 years
Energy Efficient
Most effective way
Remodel factories – optimum use of energy
Greener power stations
Recycling
Green transport – hybrid technology
Rising temps
More droughts
Melting glaciers

Water stress experienced by 40% of population

Applied at all scales
Allow developed countries to pay for greenhouse gas by cutting projects in return for carbon credits World Conference on Disaster Reduction
Hyogo Framework
Solutions
Community work
Tackling the Challenge
Mali
Using technology, soil conservation schemes
Reality:
Ecosystems very sensitive.
High vulnerability.
Limited adaptive capacity in LEDCs
Benefits:
Longer growing season north
Extreme weather affects crops
Farmland taken up by plants for biofuels
Climate change = more famine in Africa, S.America, Asia
Rapid changes mean people don’t have time to adapt EG Amazon Water Shortages
Poverty
Economic shortage of water.
Needed for people as well as crops/animals

Food Insecurity
The Challenge
Challenge of Global Hazards for the Future

More impacts – more food insecurity
Conflicts over water crisis
More vulnerable people plunged into poverty
Environmental refugees

More uncertainty – more extreme weather with more uncertainty. Rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns. Increase in number of storms.

Worsening greenhouse effect – rising sea levels

Increase evaporation – more water vapour
More ice sheet and glacier melts

Higher temperatures – more hazardous world.
Impacts on food and water supplies

Opposed global warming/ climate change till 2002
Promoting energy efficient transport
More energy from nuclear, renewable and bio fuels
Massive polluters
Electricity is the worst

Emissions Reduction Targets
EU 8%
USA 6%
ICELAND 10%
RUSSIA 0%

Tradable carbon credits
190 countries signed the treaty
KYOTO PROTOCOL/COPENHAGEN
* Achieve stabilization of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a low enough level to prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. UNITED NATIONS
LEICESTER
Environmental city
LONDON
Congestion charge
Public transport
Reflects national government strategies
Taxing pollution
Grants to eco friendly companies
Promoting carbon sinks/carbon storage
Change of Attitude
* Customer pressure
* Good public image
* High oil/energy prices
* Government taxing ‘dirty’ companies
International Groups
National Governments
Key Players in Managing Climate Change
Local Governments
TNCs/Big Businesses

BOTH NEED TO WORK TOGETHER!
Changing our lifestyles to cope with new environment
Reducing the output of greenhouse gases. Harmful impacts of global warming

CURITUBA
Taxing city centre
Small scale renewable energy generation
Green housing estates
Reward energy saving companies
Electric cars/scooters
Use methane as from landfill from electricity
Local farmers markets
Improving public transport – bus system
How a city can reduce GHGs emissions
Adaption Strategies
* Coastal defences/strategies
* Drought GM crops
* More conservation zones
Adaption
Global
International agreements (Kyoto = Copenhagen)
Individual
Lifestyle/Consumption choices
Needs to effective on all levels:
National
Government policies and taxes
Local
Local government strategies; recycling, transport.
Mitigation Strategies
* Setting targets to reduce CO2 emissions
* Green strategies
* Carbon sinks
Mitigation
Coping with Climate Change

Low elevation – height = sea level
Rising sea levels
Reduce supplies of food.
Fresh drinking water spoiled
Damage to agricultural land (65% are subsistence farmers)

70% consists of floodplains

Limited resources
Geographical remoteness
Degradation of natural...
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