Working memory model
Central executive-has overall control of information from any sensory system. Controls the slave system ; decision maker Phonological loop- stores a limited number of speech based sounds; consists of the Phonological store – INNER EAR allows acoustically coded items to be stored for a brief period of time
Articulatory control process- INNER VOICE allows sub vocal repetition of the items in the phonological store. Visuo-spatial scratch pad –stores visual and spatial information and can be thought of as an INNER EYE Episodic Buffer- this was a additional component to the working memory model that intergrates and manipulates information. It is capable of binding together info from different sources into chunks or episodes hence ‘episodic’ e.g. we can imagine an elephant playing ice hockey although we’ve never seen it we can conjure it up by manipulating information in the LTM to create scenarios. Baddely and Hitch 1974 ‘dual task study’
Participants were given digit strings to rehearse whilst at the same time carrying out verbal reasoning tasks. Participants recalled 6 digits on average and performed accurately on verbal reasoning. Baddely and Hitch findings suggest that STM or working memory consists of several different compartments that can work independentely and therefore handle more than 1 task at a time.
Baddely 1975 ‘study of word length’
To see if people could remember more short than long words, therefore demonstrating that pronounciation time rather than the number of items recalled determines the capacity of short term memory. Participants had there reading speed measured and were then presented with sets of 5 words which were either one syllable or two. Immediately after they were asked to write the 5 words in serial order. They recalled several list of both long and short words. They found that participants could recall considerably more short words. They were able to recall as many words as they were able to articulate in 2 seconds. This suggests the immediate memory span represents the number of items whatever length can be articulated in approximately 2 seconds.
Participants were given a pointer and asked to follow a spot of moving light whilst at the same time asked to perform an imagery task of imagining the block capital ‘F’ and asked to classify each angle of the ‘F’ as a yes if it included the bottom and top line. Participants found it very hard to track the light and classify the angles accurately which suggests the tracking and imagery tasks were competing for limited resources of the visuo spatial scratchpad whereas the tracking task with a verbal task were making use of the separate components of the visuo- spatial scratch pad and the phonological loop.
Multi Store model-
The study by Milner 1965 on HM supports the multi store model as he cant store information from STM to LTM but his LTM wasn’t effected as he can still recall events accurately from before his surgery. Therefore this suggests there are different stores and without one part we can’t have a healthy memory.
Key features of the multi store model
STM and LTM are unitary stores which means they have to work together for the mind to be efficient/healthy Information passes from one store to another in a linear way Information from STM to LTM is done through elaborative rehearsal (attaching semantics/deep meaning to the information) Each store has different characteristics e.g. different encoding, duration, capacity
Working memory model
Baddely and Hitch 1974
Felt the STM was more complex than just information being transferred from STM to LTM. They saw STM as a system that actively worked on several pices of information at once. Groome 1999 compared the working memory to a computer screen where various actions are being performed on current data. Baddely and Hitch suggest that the working memory STM is governed by a central processing centre (...
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