Prompt: Analyze and discuss attitudes and reactions toward the participation of women in the sciences during the 17th and 18th centuries. Historical background: While rarely acknowledged, women actively participated in scientific research in chemistry, astronomy, biology, botany, physics, and medicine. Although most European universities and academies of science excluded women entirely, in Italy a few women held professorships in science and mathematics. Women translated scieitific works on physics, astronomy, entomology, and anatomy; they also participated in scientific discussions held in salons. | Document 1 | | Source: Johann Eberti, describing the German astronomer Marie Cunitz, whose 1650 book on astronomical tables clarified the work of | |Johannes Kepler | |She was so deeply engaged in astronomical speculation that she neglected her household. The daylight hours she spent, for the most part, in| |bed because she had tired herself from watching the stars ar night. |
| | |Document 2 | | Source: Marie Meurdrac, French scientist, foreward to her "Chemistry Simplified for Women" 16666 | |When I began this little treatise, it was solely for my own satisfaction. I objected to myself that it was not the profession of a lady to | |teach; that she should remain silent, listen and learn, without displaying her own knowledge. On the other hand, I flattered myself that I | |am not the first lady to have had something published; that minds have no sex and that if the minds of women were cultivated like those of | |men, they would be equal to the minds of the latter. |
| | |Document 3 | | Source: Samuel Pepys, English diarist, 1667 | |After dinner, I walked to a meeting of the Royal Society of Scientists in expectation of the duchess of Newcastle (author of "A World Made | |by Atomes," 1653), who had desired to be invited to the Society. She ws invited after much debate, pro and con; it seems many being against| |it. The duchess hath been a good, comely woman; but her dress so antique and her deportment so ordinary, that I do not like her at all, nor| |did I hear her say anything that was worth hearing. |
| | |Document 4 | |Source: Johannes and Elisabetha Hevelius using a sextant to collaborate on astronomical research. Johanes Hevelius, "The Heavenly Machine,"| |1673 | | ...