Wild Animals and Survival Techniques

Topics: Rhinoceros, Africa, Lion Pages: 31 (7765 words) Published: September 14, 2012
Wild Animal Profiles

African Elephant
Mammal. The largest living land mammal, the African elephant weighs 3500 to 7000 kilograms (3.5 to 7 tons) and stands 3.4 meters (11 feet) high. The elephant's remarkable trunk serves variously as a nose, arm, hand, foot and multi-purpose tool. The trunk is strong enough to uproot a tree and delicate enough to pick berries, and it enables the elephant to reach as high as 7 meters (23 feet). Humans can hear only 20% of the vocal sounds an elephant makes; 80% are on low frequencies that are inaudible to our ears. Elephants can walk up to 40 kilometers (25 miles) per hour but cannot jump or run. They are very good swimmers.| Scientific Name| Lifespan|

Loxodonta africana| 60 to 70 years|
Herbivore. They graze and browse, eating up to 224 kilograms (600 pounds) of food a day consisting of grass, shoots, bark, buds of trees and shrubs, fruits, and vegetables. They drink 114 - 189 liters (30 - 50 gallons) of water per day.| Predators and Threats|

Humans; lions, wild dogs, crocodiles, and hyenas will prey on elephant calves.| Habitat|
Savannah, dense forests to open plains; widely distributed throughout central, western and eastern Africa, south of the Sahara, with the forest elephant inhabiting the rainforests of the Congo basin.|

African Lion
Mammal. Male lions are the only cats with tufted tails and manes. They can reach a length of 2.5 meters (8 feet) and a height of 1.2 meters (4 feet). Unlike most other cat species, lions are very social animals. They live in an extended family called a “pride,” that is made up of about 15 individuals, centered around a group of related females. The pride's social system is based on cooperation and division of labor. By hunting together, the pride can catch prey that could outrun a single lion. Despite their vast differences from house cats, lions do clean themselves, like to rub on things, and are known to chase their own tails. | Scientific Name| Lifespan|

Panthera leo| 15 years, 30 in captivity|
Carnivore. Wildebeest, water buffalo, warthogs, gazelles, zebras, antelope, and a wide range of others from small rodents to young elephants when needed.| Predators and Threats|
Savannas, grasslands, woodlands, and dense brush; sub-Saharan Africa, and a very small population in India.|

Mammal. The world's fastest land animal, the cheetah can go from 0 to 65 km (40 mi) per hour in three strides, with a single stride covering 7-8 meters (23-26 feet). Cheetahs can reach full speed 110 km (70 mi) per hour in seconds. They are the only cats who have nonretractile claws. This gives them better traction, and helps maintain their footing while they run. Cheetahs are one of the few big cats who can purr. They also make other unusual sounds such as chirping, yelping, and bleating. Females live alone except when they are raising cubs. Males live in coalitions of two to five members.| Scientific Name| Lifespan|

Acinonyx jubatus| 15 years|
Carnivore. Small antelope (such as gazelles and impalas), warthogs, hares, and game birds.| Predators and Threats|
Eagles, hyenas, lions, leopards, baboons, and humans.|
Open woodland; plains with small thickets, medium and long grass, steppe; sub-Saharan Africa, Iran, Turkey and Turkmenistan|

Mammal. Chimpanzees are great apes, a group that also includes bonobos, orangutans, and gorillas. Chimps use sticks, rocks and other objects as tools for tasks like pulling termites from their mounds and cracking nuts. More than 30 other tool uses have been recorded, from chimps using leaves as sponges to using branches as clubs. Chimpanzees live in communities made up of family groups, totaling about 50 members. They sleep in nests that they build in trees, but usually only use a nest once. Scientists have found that chimps can paint much like human children, and they have...
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